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Vol. 25. Issue 2.
Pages 109-118 (July - December 2020)
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Vol. 25. Issue 2.
Pages 109-118 (July - December 2020)
Original
Assessing the dimensionality of the Student School Engagement Survey: Support for a multidimensional bifactor model
Evaluación de la dimensionalidad del “Student School Engagement Survey”: apoyo para un modelo multidimensional bifactor
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Richard A. Inmanb, Paulo A.S. Moreiraa,b,
Corresponding author
paulomoreira@por.ulusiada.pt

Corresponding author.
, Diana Cunhab, Jorge Castrob
a Instituto de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação [Institute of Psychology and Education], Universidade Lusíada-Norte (Porto), Portugal
b Centro de Investigação em Psicologia para o Desenvolvimento (CIPD) [The Psychology for Positive Development Research Center], Portugal
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Item factor loadings following an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with oblimin rotation using Sample A (n=2381)
Table 2. Fully-standardized factor loadings and residual variances for the Student School Engagement Survey items based on the bifactor model, tested using Sample B (n=2485)
Table 3. Factor correlations between SSES factors from the bifactor model and composite student engagement score from the SEI. Analysis conducted with the full sample (n=4866)
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Abstract

The Student School Engagement Survey (SSES) is used to evaluate student engagement interventions run by the National Center for Student Engagement in the U.S. It was designed to measure the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive components of engagement, but its factorial structure has not been validated. To address this limitation, we tested the factorial structure of the Portuguese version of the SSES using a representative sample of 4866 adolescents. An exploratory factor analysis revealed five theoretically meaningful factors describing subtypes of emotional and behavioral engagement, and teacher support for learning. A confirmatory factor analysis supported modeling a shortened version of the SSES with a bifactor model. Bifactor indices indicated total SSES scores are interpretable as a measure of a single student engagement construct. Finally, as evidence of concurrent validity, the scale had a strong positive correlation with an established measure of student engagement. The proposed version of the SSES is a psychometrically adequate measure of student engagement, although cannot be said to measure cognitive engagement.

Keywords:
Student engagement
Student School Engagement Survey
Bifactor model
Construct validity
Resumen

El “Student School Engagement Survey” (SSES) es un cuestionario utilizado para evaluar las intervenciones de compromiso estudiantil realizadas por el Centro Nacional de Participación Estudiantil en los Estados Unidos. Este cuestionario ha sido diseñado para medir los componentes conductuales, emocionales y cognitivos del compromiso e implicación del alumnado en la escuela; sin embargo, su estructura factorial no ha sido validada. Para abordar esta limitación, se ha probado la estructura factorial de la versión portuguesa del SSES utilizando una muestra de 4.866 adolescentes. Un análisis factorial exploratorio ha revelado cinco factores teóricamente significativos que describen subtipos de compromiso emocional y conductual, y el apoyo de los maestros para el aprendizaje. Un análisis factorial confirmatorio ha apoyado el modelo de una versión abreviada del SSES con un modelo bifactorial. Los índices del modelo bifactorial han indicado que los valores totales del SSES son interpretables como una medida de un único constructo de la implicación del estudiante en la escuela. Finalmente, como evidencia de validez convergente, la escala ha tenido una fuerte correlación con una medida establecida de participación estudiantil. La versión propuesta del SSES es una medida psicométricamente adecuada desde el punto de vista del compromiso del estudiante, aunque no se puede decir que mida el compromiso cognitivo.

Palabras clave:
Compromiso del estudiante
Student School Engagement Survey
Modelo bifactor
Validez de constructo

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