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Inicio Revista de Psicodidáctica (English Edition) School and student determinants of reading performance: A multilevel analysis wi...
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Vol. 27. Issue 1.
Pages 29-37 (January - June 2022)
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Vol. 27. Issue 1.
Pages 29-37 (January - June 2022)
School and student determinants of reading performance: A multilevel analysis with Portuguese students
Determinantes escolares y de los estudiantes en el rendimiento lector: Un análisis multinivel con estudiantes portugueses
João Lopesa,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author: Campus de Gualtar 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.
, Célia Oliveirab, Patrícia Costac
a University of Minho
b Lusófona University of Porto, Hei-Lab (Digital Human-Environment Interaction Lab)
c European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Human Capital and Employment Unit; CEMAPRE (Centro de Matemática Aplicada à Previsão e Decisão > Económica)
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Tables (4)
Table 1. Descriptive statistics for students (n = 4118; 49% female, 51% male)
Table 2. Unconditional hierarchical linear model
Table 3. Hierarchical linear model considering student-related variables without school-level predictors
Table 4. Hierarchical linear model considering student-related variables and school-level predictors as predictors of students’ reading achievement
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Reading is crucial for learning, in general. Starting right with reading in primary grades is, therefore, vital for school achievement. The present study aims to test whether students’ factors best predict reading performance than school factors and determine what student and school factors predict reading performance. The study sample includes 4,118 fourth-grade students participating in IEA PIRLS 2016. Three questionnaires were used to collect data: one for school principals, one for students, and one for parents. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to study the relation of school and student-level variables to students’ reading performance. Students’ confidence in reading and home resources for learning are the best predictors of reading performance at the student level. At the school level, school emphasis on academic success is the best predictor of reading performance. The results provide clues as to what schools might do to improve reading results.

reading achievement
reading predictors
hierarchical modeling

La lectura es fundamental para el aprendizaje en general. Empezar con la lectura en educación primaria es, por tanto, vital para el rendimiento académico. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo probar si los factores de los estudiantes predicen mejor el rendimiento en lectura que los factores escolares y determinar qué factores del alumnado y de la escuela predicen el rendimiento en lectura. La muestra del estudio incluye 4.118 estudiantes de cuarto curso de educación primaria que participan en el Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2016. Han sido utilizados tres cuestionarios para recopilar datos: un cuestionario para directores de escuela, un cuestionario para estudiantes y un cuestionario para padres. Se ha utilizado un modelo lineal jerárquico para estudiar la relación de las variables al nivel de la escuela y del alumnado con el rendimiento de los estudiantes en lectura. La confianza de los estudiantes en la lectura y los recursos del hogar para el aprendizaje son los mejores predictores del rendimiento lector. Al nivel escolar, el mejor indicador del rendimiento lector es el énfasis de la escuela en el éxito académico. Los resultados proporcionan pistas sobre lo que podrán hacer las escuelas para mejorar los resultados de lectura.

Palabras clave:
cempetencia en lectura
predictores de lectura
cuarto grado
modelado jerárquico


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