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Available online 20 May 2022
Bullying in adolescence: Impact on socioemotional and behavioral adjustment
Acoso escolar en la adolescencia: impacto en el ajuste socio-emocional y conductual
Ildefonso Álvarez Marína,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author at: Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Fernán González, 76, 09003, Burgos. Tel: (+34) (947) 671731 Ext. 3303.
, Alicia Pérez-Albénizb, Beatriz Lucas-Molinac, Vanesa Martínez Valderreya, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrerob
a Universidad Isabel I de Burgos
b Universidad de La Rioja
c Universitat de València
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Tables (6)
Table 1. Descriptive statistics of the items of the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire
Table 2. Estimated factor loadings for exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis
Table 3. Goodness-of-fit indices of invariance models according to gender
Table 4. Reliability of the scores of the measurement instruments
Table 5. Pearson correlations between bullying and socioemotional and behavioral adjustment
Table 6. Comparisons of means between groups of victims and aggressors
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Bullying is a form of repeated aggression against a person with the intent to harm and participate in a situation of abuse of power. The main goal of this study has been to analyze the association between school bullying and the socio-emotional and behavioral adjustment of adolescents involved in bullying situations as victims or as aggressors. To identify the groups under study, the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIP-Q) was administered. A sample selected by stratified random cluster sampling was made, consisting of 1777 (54,1% women, M=15.71 years, SD=1.26). The dimensional model of two interrelated factors (victimization and aggression) showed a good fit to the data, as well as measurement invariance by gender. The omega coefficient of the victimization and aggression subscales has been .81 and .80, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between victim and non-victim groups, and between victims and aggressors in self-esteem, symptoms of depression, and emotional and behavioral difficulties. The victims have obtained lower scores in self-esteem and higher scores in depression and emotional and behavioral difficulties than the victims or the aggressors. The bullies have more behavior problems than the non-bullies and a less prosocial behavior than the bullied students. These findings corroborate the negative implications in the socio-emotional and behavioral adjustment of bullying in adolescent victims and aggressors, and the adequate psychometric quality of the EBIP-Q scores as a tool for its evaluation.

Behavioral problems
Socio-emotional problems

El acoso escolar es una forma de agresión reiterada sobre una persona con intención de hacerle daño y partiendo de una situación de abuso de poder. El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido estudiar la asociación entre el acoso escolar y el ajuste socioemocional y conductual en una muestra de 1777 adolescentes (M=15.71 años, DT=1.26, 54.1% mujeres), seleccionada mediante muestreo aleatorio estratificado por conglomerados. Para identificar los grupos objeto de estudio se ha administrado el European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIP-Q) y se han analizado sus propiedades psicométricas. El modelo dimensional de dos factores interrelacionados (victimización y agresión) muestra un buen ajuste a los datos, así como invarianza de medición en función del sexo. El coeficiente omega de las subescalas de victimización y de agresión ha sido .81 y .80, respectivamente. Se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de víctimas y no víctimas, y entre los de víctimas y agresores en autoestima, en síntomas de depresión y dificultades emocionales y conductuales. Las víctimas han obtenido puntuaciones menores en autoestima y mayores en síntomas de depresión y dificultades emocionales y conductuales que las no víctimas o que los agresores. El alumnado con comportamientos agresivos presenta más problemas de conducta que el no agresor y una menor conducta prosocial que el alumnado víctima de acoso. Estos hallazgos confirman las implicaciones negativas en el ajuste socioemocional y conductual del acoso escolar en los adolescentes víctimas y agresores, así como las adecuadas propiedades psicométricas del EBIP-Q.

Palabras clave:
Acoso escolar
Problemas conductuales
Problemas socio-emocionales


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