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Vol. 38. Issue 3.
Pages 165-179 (May - June 2023)
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Vol. 38. Issue 3.
Pages 165-179 (May - June 2023)
Original Article
Gender analysis of Spanish National Questionnaire on behaviours and attitudes of doctors towards their own illness (CAMAPE)
Análisis con perspectiva de género de la encuesta nacional española sobre Comportamientos y Actitudes de los Médicos Ante su Propia Enfermedad (CAMAPE)
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I. Sebastián-Sáncheza,b,c, A. Gállego-Royob,c,d, B. Marco-Gómezc,e, C. Pérez-Álvarezc,e, O. Urbano Gonzaloc,f, M.T. Delgado-Marroquínb,c,g, R. Altisent-Trotac, M.P. Astier-Peñac,h,
Corresponding author
mpastier@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
a “Universitas” Health Center, Zaragoza, Spain
b Public Health Service of Aragon, Spain
c University of Zaragoza, GIBA-IIS-Aragón, Spain
d “Miguel Servet” University Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain
e Department of Psychiatry “Royo Villanova” Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain
f Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation, “Miguel Servet” Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain
g “Delicias Norte” Health Center, Zaragoza, Spain
h Territorial Quality Unit, Territorial Directorate of Camp de Tarragona, Catalan Institut of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain
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Tables (6)
Table 1. Distribution of quantitative items regarding sex, age, professional category and work.
Table 2. Sex distribution regarding socio-demographic variables.
Table 3. Distribution of health status of doctors and work impact variables by sex.
Table 4. Distribution of self-management and seeking for help items by sex.
Table 5. Distribution of items about doctors of ill doctors and medical associations by sex.
Table 6. Final open question. Suggestions to improve healthcare for doctors as patients.
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Abstract
Introduction and objectives

Physicians’ health is a key element for quality healthcare. Medical professionals have difficulty accepting their role as patients and it might be different among sexes. The aim was to describe behaviours and attitudes of doctors towards their own illness.

Materials and methods

An online survey was launched through the General Council of Medical Associations webpage for all Spanish registered doctors. A bivariate analysis by sex was performed for all the questionnaire variables using parametric and non-parametric tests. The significance level was p<0.05 (95% confidence interval).

Results

A total of 4,308 registered doctors (1,858 men and 2,450 women) answered. Women were younger, single, and worked mainly in non-surgical specialities in the public sector. Men were older, married, and worked more frequently in public-private practice. Women had less chronic conditions, except for anxiety disorders (11.52% vs 15.18%). Both sexes, especially women, primarily self-treated (94.29% vs 95.02%), went to work while ill (88.16% vs 90.29%), visited their GP (56% vs 70%), and half of them underwent annual occupational health checks (40% vs 48%). Women self-prescribed more analgesics (93.43% vs 95.63%), more presenteeism (88% vs 90%) and felt more insecure when treating sick fellows (9.96% vs 20.12%) and requested training for it. More women agreed to make deontological recommendations about doctors’ health (91.55% vs 96.16%) and considered revalidation may contribute to improve doctors’ health (65.29% vs 66.16%).

Conclusions

Male and female doctors show illness-health behaviours and attitudes at work to improve. There are differences among male and female doctors. Regarding, medical feminization, ethical recommendations may be of benefit regarding doctors’ health-illness issues and considering gender perspective.

Keywords:
Illness behaviors
Health care quality
Sick role
Physicians
Gender
Medical ethics
Resumen
Introducción y objetivos

La salud de los médicos es un elemento clave de la calidad asistencial. Sin embargo, tienen dificultad para aceptar su rol de paciente y esta puede ser diferente entre mujeres y hombres. El objetivo fue describir comportamientos y actitudes de los médicos hacia su propia enfermedad por sexo.

Material y métodos

Diseño y despliegue de una encuesta en línea en la web del Consejo General de Colegios de Médicos para médicos colegiados españoles. Se realizó análisis bivariante por sexo para todas las variables mediante pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas. El nivel de significación se fijó en p<0,05.

Resultados

Respondieron 4.308 médicos colegiados (1.858 hombres y 2.450 mujeres). Las mujeres eran más jóvenes y trabajaban con más frecuencia en especialidades médicas del sector público. Los hombres eran mayores, casados y trabajaban con más frecuencia combinando la atención pública-privada. Las mujeres presentaban menos enfermedades crónicas, salvo trastorno de ansiedad (11,52 vs. 15,18%). Ambos sexos, especialmente las mujeres, se autotraban (94,29 vs. 95,02%), acudieron más al trabajo mientras estaban enfermas (88,16 vs. 90,29%), visitaron más a su médico de familia (56 vs. 70%) y la mitad acudieron a controles de salud laboral (40 vs. 48%). Las mujeres se autoprescribieron más analgésicos (93,43 vs. 95,63%), tuvieron más presentismo (88 vs. 90%), se sintieron más inseguras al tratar a sus compañeros enfermos (9,96 vs. 20,12%) y solicitaron formación para ello. Ellas están más de acuerdo en hacer recomendaciones deontológicas sobre la salud de los médicos (91,55 vs. 96,16%) y consideran que la revalidación puede contribuir a mejorar su salud (65,29 vs. 66,16%).

Conclusiones

Los médicos muestran comportamientos mejorables ante su proceso de enfermar. Existen diferencias entre varones y mujeres. Considerando la progresiva feminización de la sanidad, se deberían valorar recomendaciones éticas en relación con los problemas de salud-enfermedad de los médicos en función de la perspectiva de género.

Palabras clave:
Comportamientos de enfermedad
Calidad asistencial
Rol de enfermo
Médicos
Género
Ética médica

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