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Inicio Radiología (English Edition) Soft-tissue vascular malformations and tumors. Part 1: Classification, role of i...
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Vol. 61. Issue 1.
Pages 4-15 (January - February 2019)
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Vol. 61. Issue 1.
Pages 4-15 (January - February 2019)
Update in Radiology
Soft-tissue vascular malformations and tumors. Part 1: Classification, role of imaging and high-flow lesions
Malformaciones vasculares y tumores de partes blandas. Parte 1: clasificación, papel de las pruebas imagen y lesiones de alto flujo
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L. Florsa,b,
Corresponding author
florsl@health.missouri.edu

Corresponding author.
, A.W. Parka, P.T. Nortona, K.D. Hagspiela, C. Leiva-Salinasa,b
a University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA, USA
b University of Missouri Health System, Department of Radiology, One Hospital Dr, Columbia, MO, USA
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Table 1. Classification of vascular anomalies based on the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies.
Table 2. Schobinger staging system of arteriovenous malformations. Based on: Eighth Meeting of the International Workshop on Vascular Malformations. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1990. Adapted from Ref. [11].
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Abstract

Vascular malformations and tumors, also known as “vascular anomalies”, comprise an extensive variety of lesions involving all parts of the body. Knowledge of their classification and imaging characteristics is paramount. Whereas hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors, characterized by cellular proliferation and hyperplasia; vascular malformations are not real tumors and characteristically exhibit normal endothelial turnover. Vascular malformations are classified according to the predominant vascular channel as arterial, capillary, venous, lymphatic, or mixed. Ultrasound and MRI are the main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis and classification of the vascular anomalies. In this series of two articles we review the classification of vascular anomalies, describe the role of imaging, summarize their distinctive histopathogenic, clinical and imaging features, and discuss the treatment options. On the first article we discuss the high-flow lesions, whereas the slow-flow lesions will be reviewed on the second. Complex syndromes with associated vascular tumors and malformations will be also presented.

Keywords:
Vascular malformation
Hemangioma
Magnetic resonance imaging
Angiography
Resumen

Las malformaciones vasculares y los tumores, también conocidos como «anomalías vasculares», comprenden una extensa variedad de lesiones en diferentes partes del cuerpo. Conocer su clasificación y características en las imágenes es de vital importancia. Si bien los hemangiomas son tumores vasculares benignos caracterizados por proliferación celular e hiperplasia, las malformaciones vasculares no son verdaderos tumores y muestran, típicamente, una renovación endotelial normal. Las malformaciones vasculares se clasifican, según el vaso predominante, en arteriales, capilares, venosas, linfáticas o mixtas. La ecografía y la resonancia magnética son las técnicas de imagen que se usan en el diagnóstico y la clasificación de las anomalías vasculares. En esta serie de dos artículos revisaremos la clasificación de las anomalías vasculares, describiremos el papel que desempeñan las pruebas de imagen, resumiremos sus características histopatogénicas, clínicas y de imagen, y comentaremos las posibles opciones terapéuticas. En este primer artículo hablamos de las lesiones de alto flujo, y en el segundo lo haremos de las de bajo flujo. También trataremos los síndromes complejos asociados tanto a los tumores vasculares como a las malformaciones.

Palabras clave:
Malformación vascular
Hemangioma
Resonancia magnética
Angiografía

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