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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Clinical and genetic profiles of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from ...
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Vol. 47. Issue 1.
Pages 24-31 (January - February 2019)
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Vol. 47. Issue 1.
Pages 24-31 (January - February 2019)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2018.03.004
Clinical and genetic profiles of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from southeast Turkey: Novel mutations in BTK gene
D. Doğruela,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, M. Serbesa, A.Ş. Şaşihüseyinoğlua, M. Yılmaza, D.U. Altıntaşa, A. Bişginb
a Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
b Department of Medical Genetics, Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
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Figures (1)
Tables (3)
Table 1. Characteristic features of 22 XLA patients.
Table 2. Frequency of related infections and accompanied symptoms in XLA patients.
Table 3. Btk mutation analysis in patients with XLA in this study.
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X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by absent or severely reduced B cells, low or undetectable immunoglobulin levels, and clinically by extracellular bacterial infections which mainly compromise the respiratory tract. We aimed to analyze the clinical, immunological and genetic characteristics of 22 male children with XLA.


Twenty-two children with XLA from 12 unrelated families were enrolled in this study. Clinical and demographic features of patients, serum immunoglobulin levels, percentage of B cells and BTK gene mutations were reviewed retrospectively.


We identified 12 different mutations in 22 patients from 12 unrelated families. The most frequent type of mutation was premature stop codon (33.3%). Ten mutations had been reported previously including three missense mutations (c.1774T>C, c.1684C>T, c.83G>T), three premature stop codons (c.1558C>T, c.1573C>T, c.753G>A), two splice-site (c.683-1G>A, c.1567-12_1567-9delTTTG) and two small nucleotide deletions (c.902-904_delAAG, c.179_181delAGA). Two novel mutations of the BTK gene were also presented and included one splice-site mutation (c.391+1G>C) and one premature stop codon mutation (c.1243_1243delG). Six out of 12 mutations of the BTK gene were located in the SH1 domain, two in the PH domain, two in the SH3 domain and two in the SH2 domain. Three patients had a history of severe infection before diagnosis. We did not identify any correlation between severity of clinical symptoms and the genotype.


Our results show that mutations in southeast Turkey could be different from those in the rest of the world and molecular genetic tests are an important tool for early confirmed diagnosis of XLA.

Bruton tyrosine kinase
Genotype–phenotype correlation
X-linked agammaglobulinemia


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