Análisis de las escalas de valoración del riesgo de desarrollar una úlcera por presión
Analysis of risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer
Josefa Patricia Moreno-Pinaa, Miguel Richart-Martínezb, Josef Adolf Guirao-Gorisc, Gonzalo Duarte-Climentsd
Objective. To perform a literature review of the scales and instruments used to assess the risk of developing a pressure ulcer (RPU) in the adult and elderly population and to analyze whether these scales meet the criteria of validity and reliability. To determine whether a specific scale has been developed for use in the domiciliary care setting and adapted to the Spanish environment. Method. We performed a descriptive study with a search of the CUIDEN, IME, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases between January 1990 and December 2005. A specifically-designed form was used to register the variables. Data extraction was performed by a single person. The key words used were pressure ulcer, decubitus ulcer, pressure sore, risk evaluation scales, validity, sensitivity, specificity and reliability and their equivalents in Spanish. Results. Complete descriptions of 22 instruments and studies of the validity and/or reliability of 15 instruments were found. Conclusions. At present, and based on the results of this review, the RPU scale that has shown the greatest validity and reliability is the Braden-Bergstrom scale.
Úlceras por presión, Úlcera por decúbito, Escalas de valoración del riesgo, Validación, Fiabilidad
Pressure ulcer, Decubitus ulcer, Risk assessment scales, Validity, Reliability