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Inicio Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI Ensamblaje automático de piezas con desviaciones dimensionales
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Vol. 9. Núm. 4.
Páginas 383-392 (Octubre - Diciembre 2012)
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Vol. 9. Núm. 4.
Páginas 383-392 (Octubre - Diciembre 2012)
DOI: 10.1016/j.riai.2012.09.006
Open Access
Ensamblaje automático de piezas con desviaciones dimensionales
Automatic Assembly of Parts with Dimensional Variations
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Javier Gámez García
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jggarcia@ujaen.es

Autor para correspondencia.
, Alejandro Sánchez García, Silvia Satorres Martínez, Juan Gómez Ortega
Grupo de Robótica, Automá tica y Visión por Computador de la Universidad de Jaén, 23071 Jaén, España
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Resumen

Dentro de la automatización del proceso de ensamblaje de piezas, de cara a obtener un producto final que cumpla con unas expectativas dimensionales, existe una problemática asociada cuando los elementos a ensamblar presentan variaciones geométricas dimensionales apreciables. Estos errores dimensionales de los componentes pueden suponer unos sobre costes de producción al desechar el producto final obtenido por no cumplir las especificaciones, e incluso un deterioro de la imagen de la empresa fabricante. La contribución de este trabajo consiste en el desarrollo de una nueva metodología para el ensamblaje de piezas con desviaciones dimensionales. Se propone un sistema automático que compense dinámicamente la posición de los componentes a ensamblar, es decir, que mida durante el ensamblaje las dimensiones de las piezas y ajuste las posiciones de éstas, dentro del rango de movimiento permitido, para que al ensamblarse se consiga un producto final que cumpla las dimensiones requeridas en su conjunto.

Para la validación experimental se ha desarrollado un prototipo de máquina de ensamblaje de faros de vehículo el cual ha sido implantado y validado en una línea de producción industrial. De esta forma se ha demostrado, a nivel de empresa, que la metodología propuesta presenta una mejora de su competitividad ya que reduce notablemente el número de productos finales defectuosos motivados por las desviaciones dimensionales de sus componentes.

Palabras clave:
Ensamblaje automático. Fabricación flexible. Sistemas Expertos
Abstract

The automatic assembly of parts can create some problems because of the dimensional variations of the elements to be assembled (mainly because of mechanical inconsistencies). A representative example of this kind of assembly problem can be found in the production of vehicle headlamps, where one of the main stages is the assembly of the cover lens, which is made of polycarbonate, over a black housing made of polypropylene. This process is currently done statically and does not consider possible size variations of the plastic parts, thus resulting in headlamps with dimensional errors.

This paper introduces a new methodology of dynamic assembly for an industrial application that requires an adaptive positioning of the parts that are to be assembled. In addition, this work presents a successful example of an industrial prototype where different technologies, which aim to solve different problems, have to be analysed and tested. In particular, different approaches were studied: surface measurement sensors for transparent and deformable objects, actuation systems that could modify the assembly position of the parts, and control algorithms that could carry out this adaptive assembly automatically. A robust industrial prototype for vehicle headlamp assembly has been designed and built. It has been validated in both a research lab and in the assembly line of a vehicle headlamp factory. The new prototype solves the problem of assembling vehicle headlamps, achieving a final product with minimum dimensional errors and offering an example of a solution to the problem of the assembly of pieces with dimensional errors.

Keywords:
Automatic Assembly
Flexible Manufacturing Systems
Expert Systems
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