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Inicio Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica Amebas intestinales no patógenas: una visión clinicoanalítica
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Vol. 29. Núm. S3.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2009
Páginas 20-28 (Marzo 2011)
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Vol. 29. Núm. S3.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2009
Páginas 20-28 (Marzo 2011)
DOI: 10.1016/S0213-005X(11)70023-4
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Amebas intestinales no patógenas: una visión clinicoanalítica
Non-pathogenic intestinal amoebae: a clinical-analytical overview
Visitas
...
Bárbara Gomila Sarda, Rafael Toledo Navarrob, J. Guillermo Esteban Sanchisb,??
Autor para correspondencia
Jguillermo.Esteban@uv.es

Autor para correspondencia.
a Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital General de Castellón, Castellón, España
b Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Valencia, España
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Bibliografía
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Resumen

El ser humano puede ser parasitado por diferentes especies de amebas intestinales. Entamoeba histolytica es la única de reconocido poder patógeno, mientras que las restantes, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, E. polecki, Endolimax nana y Iodamoeba buetschlii, se consideran no patógenas. El objetivo de esta revisión es sintetizar las características morfológicas fundamentales de los estadios de trofozoíto y de quiste de cada una de ellas como base primordial para llevar a cabo un diagnóstico microscópico preciso. La dificultad que conlleva la diferenciación morfológica entre las especies englobadas en el denominado “complejo Entamoeba” obliga al uso de métodos diagnósticos inmunológicos y moleculares. También se lleva a cabo una síntesis de los aspectos epidemiológicos e incluso terapéuticos y profilácticos básicos de este grupo de amebas no patógenas. Todo ello resulta relevante porque estas amebas se encuentran presentes habitualmente en las analíticas coproparasitológicas humanas y deben ser diferenciadas de la especie patógena, E. histolytica. Además, se pueden utilizar como adecuados marcadores biológicos del grado de saneamiento ambiental y de las medidas higienicosanitarias de la población.

Palabras clave:
Entamoeba
Endolimax
Iodamoeba
Amebas no patógenas
Morfología
Epidemiología
Diagnóstico
Terapéutica
Profilaxis
Abstract

Human beings can be parasitized by various species of intestinal amoebae. Entamoeba histolytica is the only intestinal amoeba recognized to be pathogenic, while other amoeba species, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, E. polecki, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii are considered to be non-pathogenic. The aim of this review is to synthesize the main morphological characteristics of the trophozoite and cyst stages of each amoeba as the basis for precise microscopical diagnosis. The difficulty of morphological differentiation among species included in the so-called “Entamoeba complex” entails the use of immunological and molecular diagnoses. In addition, a summary of basic epidemiological, therapeutic and prophylactic aspects of these non-pathogenic amoebae is provided. All of these aspects are crucial since these amoebae are usually found to be present in human coproparasitological analyses and must be differentiated from the pathogenic species E. histolytica. Furthermore, they can be used as suitable biological tags of the hygienic state of the environment and the health and hygiene measures of the population.

Keywords:
Entamoeba
Endolimax
Iodamoeba
Non-pathogenic amoebae
Morphology
Epidemiology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prophylaxis
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