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Vol. 39. Issue 5.
Pages 303-315 (September - October 2020)
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Vol. 39. Issue 5.
Pages 303-315 (September - October 2020)
Special collaboration
DOI: 10.1016/j.remnie.2020.05.006
The downfall of the linear non-threshold model
El ocaso del modelo lineal sin umbral
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J.P. Suárez Fernández
Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
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Abstract

The linear non-threshold model (LNTM) is a theoretical dose-response function as a result of extrapolatingthe late effects of high-dose exposure to ionizing radiation to the low-dose range, but there is greatuncertainty about its validity. The acceptance of LNTM as the dominant probabilistic model have survivedto the present day and it is actually the cornerstone of current radiation protection policies. In the lastdecades, advances in molecular and evolutive biology, cancer immunology, and many epidemiologicaland animal studies have cast serious doubts about the reliability of the NLTM, as well as suggestingalternative models, like the hormetic theory. Considering the given evidences, a discussion between theinvolved scientific societies and the regulatory commissions is promtly required in order to to reach aredefiniton of theradiation protection basis, as it would be specially crucial in the medical field.

Keywords:
Linear non-thres
hold model
Radiobiology
Carcinogenesis
Resumen

El modelo lineal sin umbral (MLSU) es una función dosis-respuesta teórica obtenida de extrapolar losefectos tardíos debidos a la exposición a altas dosis de radiación ionizante al rango de las bajas dosis, pero existen grandes incertidumbres respecto a su validez. La aceptación del MLSU como modelo proba-bilístico preponderante ha sobrevivido hasta nuestros días y constituye la piedra angular que sostiene laspolíticas actuales de protección radiológica. En las últimas décadas, los avances en biología molecular yevolutiva, en la inmunología del cáncer, así como los resultados obtenidos de los estudios epidemiológicosy en modelos animales, han puesto en entredicho la fiabilidad del MLSU en favor de otras alternativas, como la teoría hormética. A la vista de las evidencias, se hace necesario un debate entre las socieda-des científicas implicadas y los organismos reguladores que aborde una redefinición de las bases de laprotección radiológica, cuya importancia sería capital en el ámbito médico.

Palabras clave:
Modelo lineal sin umbral
Hormesis
Radiobiología
Carcinogénesis

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