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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) The threat of mosquito-borne arboviral disease in Spain: A bibliographic review
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Vol. 158. Issue 8.
Pages 378-386 (April 2022)
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Vol. 158. Issue 8.
Pages 378-386 (April 2022)
Review
The threat of mosquito-borne arboviral disease in Spain: A bibliographic review
La amenaza de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos: revisión bibliográfica
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Tanita Laycocka, Clara Ureña Paniegoa,b,
Corresponding author
urena.paniego@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Jake Javierc
a University of Granada, Spain
b Department of Dermatology, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Spain
c University of Manchester, United Kingdom
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Figures (2)
Tables (4)
Table 1. Autochthonous cases of Dengue in Europe.
Table 2. Autochthonous cases of Chikungunya in Europe.
Table 3. Autochthonous cases of Zika in Europe.
Table 4. Summary of the study.
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Abstract

Over the last two decades there has been an increase in outbreaks of arboviral diseases, being Spain at high risk for disease emergence. This paper reviews the current evidence regarding the transmissibility, disease epidemiology, control strategies and mosquito-borne disease drivers and maintaining factors in Spain. There is risk of autochthonous cases and outbreaks in Spain due to recent transmission occurrence. Recently, there has been an expansion of Aedes Albopticus, a vector for Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya; and Cullex spp., vector for West Nile Virus, already endemic in Spain. Their establishment has been facilitated by climate and environmental drivers. If climate change projections are to be met, an increase in disease transmission is to be expected, as well as the re-establishment of other vectors such as Aedes Aegypti. Our review supports the need to understand the threat of these emerging diseases and implement preventive strategies in order to minimise their impact.

Keywords:
Emerging diseases
Arbovirus
Spain
Climate change
Resumen

En las últimas dos décadas se ha producido un incremento de las epidemias provocadas por arbovirus. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir las circunstancias que permiten la transmisión de arbovirus en España, así como actualizar la epidemiología de estas enfermedades, sus estrategias de control, y profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores que impulsan su aparición. En España existe un elevado riesgo de aparición de casos autóctonos y de brotes epidémicos. Recientemente, se ha producido una expansión del mosquito Aedes albopticus, vector competente para Dengue, Zika y Chikungunya, así como de Cullex spp., vector del virus del Nilo Occidental, ya considerado endémico en España. Las condiciones climáticas y ambientales han permitido el establecimiento de estos mosquitos y, si se cumplen las proyecciones de cambio climático, podemos esperar un incremento del riesgo de transmisión arboviral, así como la reaparición de Aedes aegypti. Esta revisión apoya la necesidad de asumir la amenaza que suponen estas enfermedades emergentes e implementar las medidas necesarias para minimizar su impacto.

Palabras clave:
Enfermedades emergentes
Arbovirus
España
Cambio climático

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