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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Evidence in immunotherapy for paediatric respiratory allergy: Advances and recom...
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Vol. 44. Issue S1.
Pages 1-32 (November 2016)
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Vol. 44. Issue S1.
Pages 1-32 (November 2016)
Special Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.09.001
Evidence in immunotherapy for paediatric respiratory allergy: Advances and recommendations. Document of the Immunotherapy Working Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergology (SEICAP)
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M. Tortajada-Girbésa,b,
, M. Mesa del Castilloc, H. Larramonad, J.M. Lucase, M. Álvarof, A.I. Tabarg, M.J. Jerezh, A. Martínez-Cañavatei,**
a Paediatric Allergology and Pulmonology Unit, Dr. Peset University Hospital, Valencia, Spain
b Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
c Paediatric Allergology and Neumology Unit, Hospital El Escorial, Madrid, Spain
d Paediatric Allergology and Pulmonology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University Autonoma of Barcelona, and Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Hospital of Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain
e Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Unit, Virgen Arrixaca Clinic Universitary Hospital, Murcia, Spain
f Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
g Servicio de Alergología. Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), RETIC de Asma, Reacciones adversas y Alérgicas (ARADYAL), Pamplona, Spain
h Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg
i Paediatric Allergology and Neumology Unit, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, Spain
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Tables (4)
Table 1. OCEBM levels of evidence.
Table 2. OCEMB grades of recommendation.
Table 3. Relevant inhalant allergen molecules for AIT.
Table 4. Local reactions grading system for SLIT.
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Abstract

Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended. This treatment approach has shown to decrease symptoms and improve quality of life, becoming cost effective for a large number of patients. In addition, it is considered the only treatment that can influence the natural course of the disease by targeting the cause of the allergic inflammatory response. The aim of this publication is to reflect the advances of AIT in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents reviewing articles published since 2000, establishing evidence categories to support the strength of the recommendations based on evidence. The first part of the article covers the prerequisite issues to understand how AIT is effective, such as the correct etiologic and clinical diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases. Following this, the article outlines the advancements in understanding the mechanisms by which AIT achieve immune tolerance to allergens. Administration routes, treatment regimens, dose and duration, efficacy, safety, and factors associated with adherence are also reviewed. Finally, the article reviews future advances in the research of AIT.

Keywords:
Allergen immunotherapy
Allergic rhinitis
Asthma
Subcutaneous immunotherapy
Sublingual immunotherapy

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