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Inicio Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI Control y Operación de Estaciones Depuradoras de Aguas Residuales: Modelado y S...
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Vol. 14. Núm. 3.
Páginas 217-233 (Julio - Septiembre 2017)
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1876
Vol. 14. Núm. 3.
Páginas 217-233 (Julio - Septiembre 2017)
DOI: 10.1016/j.riai.2017.05.004
Open Access
Control y Operación de Estaciones Depuradoras de Aguas Residuales: Modelado y Simulación
Control and operation of wastewater treatment plants (I)
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Ramon Vilanova
Autor para correspondencia
Ramon.Vilanova@uab.cat

Autor para correspondencia.
, Ignacio Santín, Carles Pedret
Departamento de Telecomunicaciones y de Ingeniería de Sistemas, Escuela de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
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Resumen

Este trabajo constituye la primera parte de una revisión de la problemática del control y operación de estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales (EDAR) para el tratamiento de agua residual urbana. En esta primera parte nos centramos en el modelado y simulación mientras que la segunda parte se dedica en exclusiva al control y operación. Esta depuración se realiza, mayoritariamente, mediante procesos biológicos, concretamente, mediante el denominado proceso de fangos activados. El hecho de tratar con un proceso biológico conlleva una elevada complejidad tanto desde el punto de vista de modelado como, por supuesto, de control y operación. Para poder ubicar convenientemente el problema, se presenta una caracterización de las aguas residuales urbanas y las necesidades de depuración asociadas. El control y operación descansan en gran medida en la disponibilidad de modelos apropiados y, ya hoy en día, de una elevada fiabilidad. Se presentan los modelos de la familia ASM; poniendo especial énfasis en el ASM1 que se describe en más detalle; así como las características de otras unidades de proceso como el decantador y su interconexión. En estos modelos destacan los entornos BSM de benchmarking, que han sido esenciales para todo el posterior desarrollo en la actividad de control y operación.

Palabras clave:
Estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales
proceso de fangos activados
benchmarking
Abstract

This tutorial is the first part of a review of the problems arising with the control and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for urban wastewater. This first part will concentrate in the modelling and simulation steps whereas the second part will cover the control and operation issues. This treatment is carried out, mainly, by biological processes. Specifically, by the so-called activated sludge process. Dealing with a biological process entails a high complexity both from the viewpoint of modelling and, of course, from what matters to control and operation. In order to properly locate the problem, a characterisation of the urban wastewater and the associated treatment needs are presented. Control and operation rely heavily on the availability of appropriate models and, today, of proved reliability. The models of the ASM family are presented; placing special emphasis on the ASM1 that is described in more detail; as well as the characteristics of other process units like the settler and its interconnection. These models highlight the BSM benchmarking environments, which have been essential for all subsequent development in the control and operation activity.

Keywords:
wastewater treatment plants
activated sludge process
benchmarking
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