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Inicio Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología Nutrición y salud en personas de edad avanzada en europa. Estudio SENECA’s FI...
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Vol. 36. Núm. 2.
Páginas 82-93 (Enero 2001)
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Vol. 36. Núm. 2.
Páginas 82-93 (Enero 2001)
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Nutrición y salud en personas de edad avanzada en europa. Estudio SENECA’s FINALE en españa. 2. Estilo de vida. Estado de salud y nutricional. Funcionalidad física y mental
Nutrition and health of the elderly persons in Europe «SENECA’s FINALE» study in Spain. 2. Style of life. Health and nutritional status. Physical and mental functionality
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...
B. Beltrán
,**
Autor para correspondencia
Moreiras@eucmax.sim.ucm.es

Correspondencia: B. Beltrán. Departamento de Nutrición. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid. E-mail:
, A. Carbajal*, C. Cuadrado*, G. Varela-Moreiras**, B. Ruiz-Roso*, M.L. Martín*, J. Súarez***, O. Moreiras*
* Departamento de Nutrición. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad Complutense de Madrid
** Sección de Nutrición y Bromatología. Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas I. Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales de la Universidad San Pablo CEU. Madrid
*** Centro de Salud. SERGAS. Betanzos (A Coruña)
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Bibliografía
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Estadísticas
OBJETIVO

Se describe el estado nutricional juzgado por dieta, antropometría y bioquímica, así como el estilo de vida, salud subjetiva, capacidad física, cognitiva y estado de depresión de 33 hombres y 48 mujeres españoles, de 80 a 85 años, participantes en el estudio europeo y multicéntrico SENECA’s FINALE.

MATERIAL Y MÉTODO

La metodología incluía un cuestionario general sobre estilo de vida, actividad física, salud y consumo de fármacos. Se midieron peso, talla, altura de rodilla, envergadura y circunferencias corporales. Se analizaron vitamina A, E, B12, ácido fólico, carotenos, otros carotenoides y colesterol plasmáticos. Para el estudio dietético se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). La funcionalidad se valoró mediante el Physical Performance Test (PPT) y según la capacidad para realizar las actividades de la vida diaria (ADL). Se incluyeron dos cuestionarios sobre estado mental, cognitivo (Minimental State Examination; MMSE) y afectivo (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS).

RESULTADOS

Un 45,5% de los hombres y un 37,5% de las mujeres se consideraban más activos que las personas de su misma edad y un 3% y un 21%, respectivamente, con menor actividad. Un 61,7% de los hombres y un 63% de las mujeres respondieron ser menos activos que cinco años atrás. Los hombres se mostraron más optimistas al considerar su salud como buena en un 61%, y mejor que los individuos de su misma edad en un 54,5% (50% y 39,6% en las mujeres, respectivamente). Los hombres presentaron, con respecto a las mujeres, medias superiores (p < 0,001) en talla, peso (163,06 ± 7,39 cm/ 71,82 ± 9,03 kg y 151,09 ± 7,02 cm/61,4 ± 11,68 kg), envergadura (167,12 ± 7,7 cm y 153,5 ± 7,7 cm), altura de la rodilla (50,9 ± 2,85 cm y 46,98 ± 2,62 cm), circunferencia de cintura (99,42 ± 7,98 cm y 90,8 ± 9,85 cm) y relación cintura/cadera (0,95 ± 0,48 y 0,87 ± 0,0662, en hombres y mujeres, respectivamente). La prevalencia de obesidad fue del 23,4% en mujeres y del 16,7% en hombres; un 3,3% y un 6,4%, respectivamente, tenían bajo peso. Las concentraciones vitamínicas pueden considerarse satisfactorias excepto para tocoferol (54,5% de hombres y 21,15% de mujeres con deficiencias) y folatos (72,7% y 68,4% con deficiencias, respectivamente). Según el MNA (27,3 ± 2,1 en hombres y 26,5 ± 3,0 en mujeres), un 91,9% de los individuos gozaba de un estado nutricional óptimo y un 8% se encontraba en situación de riesgo. La funcionalidad física, juzgada por el PPT y ADL, no se diferenció entre sexos. La puntuación del MMSE fue menor (p < 0,05) en las mujeres (21,9 ± 5,40) que en los varones (24,14 ± 4,27) y el 31% de los hombres y el 44,% de las mujeres se situaron por debajo del límite de funcionalidad cognitiva (23). Igualmente, la puntuación del GDS reflejó un estado depresivo en el 12,9% de los varones y 28,3% de las mujeres.

CONCLUSIONES

En los diez años de seguimiento (1989-1999), aunque la muestra mantiene una salud y funcionalidad que le permiten gozar de cierta independencia, se observa un claro descenso en la actividad física y en el estado cognitivo.

Palabras clave:
Estado nutricional
Salud
Funcionalidad
Personas de edad avanzada
SENECA’s FINALE
OBJECTIVE

The nutritional status as assessed by diet, anthropometry and biochemistry as well as by the style of life, subjective health, physical capacity, cognitive capacity and state of depression of 33 Spanish men and 48 Spanish women from 80 to 85 years of age who participated in the European and multicentric SENECA’s FINALE study is described.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The methodology included a general questionnaire on the style of life, physical activity, health and drug consumption. Weight, height, knee height, open arm span and circumferences were measured. Vitamin A, E. B12, folic acid, carotenes, other carotenoids and plasma cholesterol were analyzed. For the dietary study, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used. The functionality was assessed by the Physical Performance Test (PPT) and according to the capacity to perform the daily life activities (DLA). Two questionnaires on mental, cognitive (minimental State Examination, MMSE) and affective (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS) status were included.

RESULTS

45.5% of the men and 37.5% of the women were considered more active than the persons of their same age and 3% and 21% respectively with less activity. 61.7% of the men and 63% of the women answered that they were less active than 5 years before. The men were shown to be 61% more optimistic when considering their health as good and 54.5% (50% and 39.6% in the women respectively) better than the individuals of their same age. The men presented, in regards to the women, higher means (p < 0.001) in height/weight (163.06 ± 7.39 cm/ 71.82 ± 9.03 kg and 151.09 ± 7.02 cm/ 61.4 ± 11.68 kg), open arm span (167.12 ± 7.7 cm and 153.5 ± 7.7 cm), knee height (50.9 ± 2.85 cm and 46.98 ± 2.62 cm), waist circumference (99.42 ± 7.98 cm and 90.8 ± 9.85 cm) and waist/hip ratio (0.95 ± 0.48 and 0.87 ± 0.0662, in men and women, respectively). The prevalence of obesity was 23.4% in women and 16.7% in men; 3.3% and 6.4%, respectively, had low weight. The vitamin concentrations can be considered satisfactory except for tocopherol (54.5% of the men and 21.15% of the women with deficiencies) and folates (72.7% ± 68.4% with deficiencies, respectively). According to the MNA (27.3% ± 2.1 in men and 26.5 ± 3.0 in women), 91.9% of the individuals enjoyed an optimum nutritional status and 8% were in an at risk situation. The physical functionality, assessed by the PPT and ADL, showed no differentiation between the sexes. The MMSE score was less (p < 0.05) in the women (21.9 ± 5.40) than in the men (24.14 ± 4.27) and 31% of the men and 44% of the women were located under the cognitive functionality limit (23). In addition, the GDS score reflected a depressive status in 12.9% of the men and 28.3% of the women.

CONCLUSIONS

In the ten years of the follow-up (1989-1999), even though the sample maintained a health and functionality that made it possible to enjoy certain independence, a clear decrease in physical activity and in the cognitive status was observed.

Key words:
Nutritional Status
Health
Functionality
Elderly persons
SENECA’s FINALE
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