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Inicio Revista Colombiana de Reumatología Enfermedades osteocondensantes: una nueva visión clínico-radiológica soportad...
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Vol. 16. Núm. 1.
Páginas 46-60 (Marzo 2009)
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Vol. 16. Núm. 1.
Páginas 46-60 (Marzo 2009)
DOI: 10.1016/S0121-8123(09)70118-5
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Enfermedades osteocondensantes: una nueva visión clínico-radiológica soportada en la genética y la inmunoosteología
Osteocondensant diseases. A new clinical-radiological vision supported in genetics and osteoimmunology
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Jimi Mejía-Vallejo1, Enrique Calvo2, José Félix Restrepo3, Antonio Iglesias-Gamarra3
1 Internista Reumatólogo, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
2 Radiólogo, Profesor Asociado de Radiología
3 Internista y Reumatólogo, Profesor Titular de Reumatología
Contenido relaccionado
Rev Colomb Reumatol. 2009;16:14510.1016/S0121-8123(09)70112-4
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Resumen

Las alteraciones en el remodelado óseo llevan al incremento o disminución de la masa ósea, generando daño de la microarquitectura ósea, lo cual incrementa el riesgo de fractura. Las patologías con incremento de la densidad conducen a diversos procesos osteocondensantes genéticamente dirigidos. La osteocondensación es explicada actualmente por alteración en la función del osteoclasto asociada a una deficiente función de la resorción ósea, alteración en la función del osteoblasto que genera un incremento anormal en la formación ósea, o un imbalance homeostático entre los dos procesos; la expresión clínica y radiológica de estas entidades puede darse en etapas tempranas del desarrollo o en la vida adulta dependiendo del componente autosómico recesivo o dominante respectivamente. En esta revisión, se discute la clasificación basada en el desorden funcional de las células óseas y las principales características clínicas y radiológicas que permiten un abordaje diagnóstico sencillo y aplicable en la práctica clínica.

Palabras clave:
osteoesclerosis
hiperostosis
osteoclasto
osteoblasto
Summary

The alterations in osseous remodeling lead to the increase or decrease of the osseous mass, generating damage to the osseous micro-architecture, which increases the risk of fracture. The pathologies with increase in osseous density lead to different genetically directed osteocondensing processes. The osteocondensing is currently explained by alteration in the function of the osteoclast, associated with a deficient function of the osseous resorption, an alteration in the osteoblast function, which generates an abnormal increase in the osseous formation, or a homeostatic imbalance between the two processes; the clinical and radiological expression of these diseases can take place in early stages of the development, or in the adult life, depending on the recessive or dominant autosomic component, respectively. In this review, the classification based on the functional disorder of the bone cell is discussed, as well as the main clinical and radiological characteristics than permit a simple and applicable diagnostic approach in the clinical practice.

Key words:
osteosclerosis
hyperostosis
osteoclast
osteoblast
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