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Vol. 32. Núm. S2.
Psicología y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal
Páginas 13-18 (Octubre 2009)
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Vol. 32. Núm. S2.
Psicología y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal
Páginas 13-18 (Octubre 2009)
Psicología y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal
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Apoyo y tratamiento psicológico en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal: relación médico-paciente
Psychological support and treatment in inflammatory bowel disease: the physician-patient relationship
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Laura Camacho Martel
Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamientos Psicológicos, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España
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Resumen

La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) interfiere en la vida diaria de los pacientes afectando a su calidad de vida. Los factores psicológicos relacionados con la EII desempeñan un papel muy importante, ya que influyen negativamente en el curso de la enfermedad y en el bienestar general de los pacientes. Así, se observa que las manifestaciones de estrés, ansiedad y del estado de ánimo deprimido son muy frecuentes en pacientes con EII y, además, se relacionan con el aumento de las recaídas y la gravedad de los síntomas. En este sentido, se ha comprobado que los tratamientos psicológicos mejoran el curso de la enfermedad disminuyendo el malestar emocional. Por otra parte, una buena relación entre el médico y el paciente favorece la comunicación, la confianza y la toma de decisiones conjuntas. La EII requiere de un enfoque multidimensional donde el tratamiento psicológico forma parte de un abordaje eficaz de la enfermedad.

Palabras clave:
Enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal
Factores psicosociales
Tratamiento psicológico
Calidad de vida
Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) interferes with the daily activities of affected individuals and impairs their quality of life. The psychological factors related to IBD play an important role since they negatively affect the course of the disease and the patients’ general wellbeing. Thus, stress, anxiety and depressed mood are highly frequent in patients with IBD and are associated with an increase in recurrences and symptom severity. Psychological treatments have been shown to improve the course of the disease by decreasing emotional distress. In addition, a good physician-patient relationship favors communication, trust and joint decision making. IBD requires a multidimensional approach in which psychological treatment forms part of the effective management of the disease.

Keywords:
Inflammatory bowel disease
Psychosocial factors
Psychological treatment
Quality of life
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