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Inicio Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica La infección intraabdominal en el paciente inmunodeprimido
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Vol. 28. Núm. S2.
Infecciones intraabdominales
Páginas 11-17 (Septiembre 2010)
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Vol. 28. Núm. S2.
Infecciones intraabdominales
Páginas 11-17 (Septiembre 2010)
DOI: 10.1016/S0213-005X(10)70025-2
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La infección intraabdominal en el paciente inmunodeprimido
Intraabdominal infection in inmunodepressed patients
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Jesús Fortún Abete??
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fortun@ono.com

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, Pilar Martín-Dávila
Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España
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Resumen

Las enfermedades gastrointestinales son frecuentes en los pacientes inmunodeprimidos. La flora endógena constituye la principal fuente de infección en el hombre, pero es especialmente relevante cuando los mecanismos de barrera de la mucosa digestiva se ven afectados por diversos factores. La translocación bacteriana, los traumatismos, los procesos isquémicos o las intervenciones quirúrgicas son eventos que pueden afectar a la población general. Además de éstos, la infiltración tumoral, la mucositis posquimio o radioterapia, la hipoproteinemia, la neutropenia o el déficit de la función linfocitaria constituyen, entre otros, factores agravantes para el desarrollo de infección intraabdominal en determinados pacientes. Las formas clínicas de estas infecciones son muy variadas, dependiendo del tipo de paciente en el que concurran y el escenario en el que se desarrollen, incluido el ambiente hospitalario. En este capítulo se revisan las características diferenciales de las complicaciones infecciosas intraabdominales en los pacientes con diferentes tipos de inmunosupresión.

Palabras clave:
Infección abdominal
Inmunosupresión
Peritonitis
Abstract

Diseases of the gastrointestinal system frequently complicate immunosuppressed patients. Endogenous flora is the principal source of infection in humans, especially in patients with dysfunction of the digestive epithelial barrier due to various factors. Bacterial translocation, traumatisms, ischemia and surgery are frequent events in the general population. In addition, important risk factors for abdominal infections in specific patients include tumoral infiltration, mucositis complicating chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, hypoproteinemia, neutropenia and lymphocyte deficiency. Clinical pictures vary according to patients’ baseline condition and the environmental setting, including nosocomial infections. The differential clinical characteristics of abdominal infections observed in distinct types of immunosuppressed patients are reviewed.

Keywords:
Abdominal infection
Immunosuppression
Peritonitis
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