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Vol. 18. Issue 2.
Pages 79-84 (July - December 2017)
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Vol. 18. Issue 2.
Pages 79-84 (July - December 2017)
History of Vaccinology
DOI: 10.1016/j.vacune.2017.11.006
Spread of the smallpox vaccine in Bilbao (1801–1802), the role of Lope de Mazarredo (1769–1820)
Propagación de la vacuna contra la viruela en Bilbao (1801-1802), el papel de Lope de Mazarredo (1769-1820)
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J. Tuells
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tuells@ua.es

Corresponding author.
, J.L. Duro Torrijos
Cátedra Balmis de Vacunología, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain
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Abstract

The dissemination of the Jennerian vaccine in Spain began with similar readiness to that of other European countries. However, this expansion did not occur simultaneously in Spain. Several groups of illustrious physicians and surgeons linked to academic institutions, and with contacts in France and England took the initiative to practice vaccination. The pioneers of vaccine distribution emerged in Catalonia, Madrid, and the Basque Country. The enthusiasm of the first vaccinators was supported by the bourgeoisie, aristocrats, and state officials. Ignacio María Ruiz de Luzuriaga, secretary of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Madrid, had a prominent role as a coordinator between those interested in administering or receiving the vaccine, whether they were health workers or parents. The correspondence between them allows to determine the circumstances of that expansion. This case study analyses the introduction of the vaccine in Bilbao, through a series of letters from Juan Antonio de Ugalde, surgeon of the town, and Lope García de Mazarredo sent to Ruiz de Luzuriaga.

Keywords:
Smallpox
Vaccine
Bilbao
Lope García de Mazarredo
Juan Antonio de Ugalde
Ignacio María Ruiz de Luzuriaga
Resumen

La difusión de la vacuna jenneriana en España se inició con similar prontitud a la de otros países europeos. Sin embargo, esta expansión no se produjo de forma simultánea en nuestro país, varios grupos de médicos y cirujanos ilustrados vinculados a instituciones académicas y con contactos en Francia e Inglaterra tomaron la iniciativa de practicar la vacunación. En Cataluña, Madrid y el País vasco-navarro surgieron los núcleos pioneros de distribución de la vacuna. Al entusiasmo de los primeros vacunadores se sumó el apoyo de burgueses, aristócratas y funcionarios del Estado. Ignacio María Ruiz de Luzuriaga, secretario de la Real Academia de Medicina Matritense, tuvo un destacado papel como conector entre los interesados en administrar o recibir la vacuna, ya fueran sanitarios o padres. La correspondencia que mantuvo con ellos permite conocer las circunstancias particulares de esa expansión. Este estudio de caso analiza la introducción de la vacuna en Bilbao a través de un conjunto de cartas de Juan Antonio de Ugalde, cirujano de la villa, y Lope García de Mazarredo remitidas a Ruiz de Luzuriaga.

Palabras clave:
Viruela
Vacuna
Bilbao
Lope García de Mazarredo
Juan Antonio de Ugalde
Ignacio María Ruiz de Luzuriaga

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