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Original Article
Available online 17 November 2021
Chemical submission in cases of alleged crimes against sexual freedom 2016–2018, Lima, Peru
Sumisión química en casos de presuntos delitos contra la libertad sexual 2016–2018, Lima, Perú
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Grecia Alessandra Carruitero Morana,
Corresponding author
greciacarruiteromoran@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Carlos Antonio Castro Ccosccoa, Kevin Jordan Gómez Alcántaraa, Valery Terrazas Ramosa, Víctor Crispín Pérezb
a Escuela Profesional de Toxicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru
b Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru
Received 20 January 2021. Accepted 08 March 2021
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Statistics
Tables (6)
Table 1. Distribution of cases per year and type.
Table 2. Distribution of victims according to age group.
Table 3. Distribution of cases per year and district of Metropolitan Lima.
Table 4. Distribution of the time elapsed from the incident until sample taking, according to year.
Table 5. General appearance of the sample, identified according to year.
Table 6. Type of sample identified according to year and percentage.
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Abstract
Introduction

Chemical submission is the use of chemical substances to manipulate the will of a person, producing incapacity or unconsciousness that facilitates criminal action. It has gained in prominence in recent years, due to its frequent use in cases of alleged crimes against sexual freedom.

Materials and methods

An observational descriptive-retrospective study of cases of alleged crimes against sexual freedom committed using chemical substances was carried out, to determine the profile of the victims according to the samples analysed and the substances detected in 2016, 2017 and 2018, registered with the Criminalistics Directorate (DIRCRI) of the Peruvian National Police (PNP).

Results

Of the 1841 cases of crime against sexual freedom, 445 (24.17% ± 2%) met the inclusion criteria. The victim's profile is that of a young (Lima) woman (mean age: 22.56 ± 1.14 years). The cases were from San Juan de Lurigancho (10.56% ± 2.9%). The samples submitted were urine (62.47% ± 4.5%), and urine and nail plaque (37.53% ± 4.5%). The toxicological analysis of probable cases showed substances identified as psychotropic drugs (57.53% ± 4.6%, mainly benzodiazepines), ethanol (26.29% ± 4.1%), and illicit drugs (11.24% ± 2.9%, mainly marijuana and cocaine), alone or in combination.

Conclusions

The study showed that 24.17% ± 2% were probable cases of Lima women who had been sexually assaulted under the influence of chemical substances, predominantly in the district of San Juan de Lurigancho at 10.56% ± 2.9%, most of the samples analysed were urine with 62.47% ± 4.5%; the most prevalent group of substances were psychotropic drugs at 57.53% ± 4.6%, with benzodiazepines being the only subgroups that were recorded.

Keywords:
Drug facilitated sexual assault
Sex offences
Ethanol
Psychotropic drugs
Illicit drugs
Resumen
Introducción

La sumisión química es el uso de sustancias químicas con el fin de manipular la voluntad en las personas produciendo una incapacidad o inconsciencia que facilita la acción criminal, por lo que han tomado un gran protagonismo en los últimos años, debido al uso frecuente en los casos de presuntos delitos contra la libertad sexual.

Materiales y métodos

Se ha realizado un estudio observacional descriptivo-retrospectivo de casos de presuntos delitos contra la libertad sexual ejercidos mediante sustancias químicas, con el fin de determinar el perfil de las víctimas según las muestras analizadas y las sustancias detectadas en los años 2016, 2017 y 2018, que han sido registrados en la Dirección de Criminalística (DIRCRI) de la Policía Nacional del Perú (PNP).

Resultados

De los 1841 casos de delito contra la libertad sexual, 445 (24,17 ± 2%) cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. El perfil de la víctima es de una mujer limeña joven con una edad media de 22,56 ± 1,14 años. La procedencia de casos fue de San Juan de Lurigancho (10,56 ± 2,9%). Las muestras remitidas han sido orina (62.47 ± 4.5%), y en conjunto con el sarro ungueal (37,53 ± 4,5%). El análisis toxicológico de los casos probables han sido sustancias identificadas como psicofármacos (57,53 ± 4,6%, fundamentalmente benzodiacepinas), etanol (26,29 ± 4,1%), y drogas ilícitas (11,24 ± 2,9%, fundamentalmente marihuana y cocaína), solas o en combinación.

Conclusiones

El estudio demostró que el 24,17 ± 2% fueron casos probables de mujeres limeñas, agredidas sexualmente bajo efectos de sustancias químicas, predominando el distrito de San juan de Lurigancho con el 10,56 ± 2,9%, cuya mayoría de muestras analizadas fueron a partir de la orina con el 62,47 ± 4,5%; el grupo de sustancias que más prevalencia se obtuvo fueron los psicofármacos con 57,53 ± 4,6%, siendo las benzodiacepinas los únicos subgrupos que fueron registrados.

Palabras clave:
Sumisión química
Delitos sexuales
Etanol
Psicofármacos
Drogas ilícitas

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