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Vol. 14. Issue 2.
Pages 106-112 (April - June 2021)
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Vol. 14. Issue 2.
Pages 106-112 (April - June 2021)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.rpsmen.2020.05.002
Psychological impact of COVID-19 on a sample of Spanish health professionals
Impacto psicológico de la COVID-19 en una muestra de profesionales sanitarios españoles
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María Dosil Santamaríaa, Naiara Ozamiz-Etxebarriab,
Corresponding author
naiara.ozamiz@ehu.eus

Corresponding author.
, Iratxe Redondo Rodríguezb, Joana Jaureguizar Albondiga-Mayorb, Maitane Picaza Gorrochategic
a Departamento de Métodos de Investigación y Diagnóstico en Educación, Universidad del País Vasco, Lejona, Spain
b Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Universidad del País Vasco, Lejona, Spain
c Departamento de Didáctica y Organización Escolar, Universidad del País Vasco, Lejona, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Frequencies and rates of healthcare staff that suffer depression (mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe) and insomnia, broken down by sex and age.
Table 2. Means (M) and standard deviations (SD) in depression, anxiety, stress and insomnia based on the personal variables gathered.
Table 3. Results of the multivariate and univariate analyses of variance for the symptomatology.
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Abstract
Introduction

After the outbreak of the COVID-19 was considered a global pandemic in March 2020, the state of alarm was declared in Spain. In this situation, health professionals are experiencing high levels of stress due to the overload of work the pandemic is generating and the conditions in which they are working. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that can destabilize the mental health of these professionals in our context.

Materials and Methods

The sample was composed of 421 health professionals. The data were gathered by an online questionnaire sent to them by e-mail. The DASS-21 was used to assess anxiety, stress and depression, and the EAI to measure sleep difficulties. In addition, other descriptive variables that could be related to psychological symptomatology were collected from the sample.

Results

The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has generated symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia among health workers, with higher levels among women and older professionals. Some factors such as having been in contact with the virus or fear at work, triggered greater symptomatology.

Conclusions

In this critical situation, professionals are in the front line and therefore, are directly exposed to certain risks and stressors. This contributes to the development of diverse psychological symptoms. Consequently, it is recommended to offer them psychological help in order to reduce the emotional impact of the COVID-19, and thus, to ensure not only the mental health of our health professionals, but also the adequate care they provide.

Keywords:
COVID-19
Health proffesionals
Anxiety
Depression
Insomnia
Resumen
Introducción

Tras declararse en marzo de 2020 el brote por el virus COVID-19 pandemia mundial, se decretó el estado de alarma en España. En esta situación, el personal sanitario está viviendo altos niveles de estrés por la sobrecarga de trabajo y las condiciones de este. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los factores que pueden desestabilizar la salud mental de dichos profesionales en nuestro contexto.

Materiales y métodos

La muestra estuvo compuesta por 421 profesionales de la salud. Los datos se recogieron mediante un cuestionario online que se les envió a través del correo electrónico. Se empleó el DASS-21 para evaluar las variables de ansiedad, estrés y depresión, y la EAI para medir las dificultades con el sueño. Además, se recogieron otras variables descriptivas de la muestra que podrían estar relacionadas con estos niveles de sintomatología psicológica.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que la pandemia del COVID-19 ha generado entre el personal sanitario síntomas de estrés, ansiedad, depresión e insomnio, con mayores niveles entre las mujeres y profesionales de más edad. Variables como haber estado en contacto con el virus o el miedo en el trabajo, desencadenaron una mayor sintomatología.

Conclusiones

En esta situación crítica, el colectivo de profesionales se sitúa en primera línea, por lo que está expuesto directamente determinados riesgos y estresores. Esto contribuye a que desarrollen sintomatología psicológica diversa. Consecuentemente, se recomienda ofrecerles ayuda psicológica para reducir el impacto emocional del COVID-19, y asegurar así, no sólo su salud mental, sino también el adecuado cuidado que dispensan.

Palabras clave:
COVID-19
Personal sanitario
Ansiedad
Depresión
Insomnio

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