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Vol. 48. Issue 3.
Pages 133-139 (July - September 2019)
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Vol. 48. Issue 3.
Pages 133-139 (July - September 2019)
Artículo original
DOI: 10.1016/j.rcpeng.2017.12.011
Hidden Suicides of the Indigenous People of the Brazilian Amazon: Gender, Alcohol and Familial Clustering
Suicidios ignorados de indígenas de la Amazonia brasileña: sexo, alcohol y vínculo parental
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Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellanaa,
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jesem.orellana@fiocruz.br

Corresponding author.
, Cynthia Costa de Souzab, Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de Souzaa
a Leônidas and Maria Deane Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Manaus, Brazil
b Nursing Department, Nilton Lins University, Manaus, Brazil
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Table. Epidemiological and demographic characteristics of indigenous people suicide (official suicides and hidden suicides), in the municipality of the Tabatinga, State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2007-2011.
Abstract
Objective

To evaluate the coverage, characteristics and the risk of suicide in the indigenous people of Tabatinga in the Brazilian Amazon.

Methods

An active surveillance strategy for suicide cases was used: records of the Ministry of Health, the Municipal Health Secretariat, the Special Indigenous Health District of the Upper River Solimões (Distrito Sanitario Especial Indígena Alto Río Solimões), the Military Hospital of Tabatinga, the National Indian Foundation (Fundación Nacional del Indio) and the civil registry offices were examined from 2007 to 2011 for individuals over 9 years of age. Adjusted rates were estimated using the direct method and according to age. A descriptive analysis was performed and the hypothesis tests were considered significant if p-values were <0.05.

Results

The coverage of indigenous suicide was 82.8%, since 11 (17.2%) were classified as hidden suicides. For men between 15 and 29 years of age, and for women aged from 12 to 20 years, the probability of suicide was around 70.0%. In 17.2% of the sample there was a record of alcohol consumption before death and relationship between victims. The corrected adjusted mortality rate was 111.7/100,000 (95% CI, 84.6–148.6).

Conclusions

The risk of suicide in the indigenous people of the Tabatinga is very high. Coping strategies should consider the complex relationship between suicide and alcohol consumption, gender differences and the existence of vulnerable groups, such as young people, especially those with close relatives who have committed suicide.

Keywords:
Suicide
South American Indians
Alcohol-related disorders
Family characteristics
Gender and health
Resumen
Objetivo

Evaluar el alcance, las características y el riesgo de suicidio de los indígenas de Tabatinga, en la Amazonia brasileña.

Métodos

Se utilizó una estrategia de vigilancia activa del suicidio y se examinaron los registros de mayores de 9 años, de 2007-2011, del Ministerio de Salud, la Secretaría Municipal de Salud, el Distrito Sanitario Especial Indígena Alto Río Solimões, el Hospital Militar de Tabatinga, la Fundación Nacional del Indio y la notaría del Registro Civil. Las tasas ajustadas se calcularon utilizando el método directo, según la edad. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se consideró que las pruebas de hipótesis eran significativas si p < 0,05.

Resultados

El alcance del suicidio indígena fue del 82,8%, ya que 11 (17,2%) se clasificaron como suicidios ocultos. Alrededor del 70,0% de la probabilidad de suicidio de los varones se situó a los 15-29 años y la de las mujeres, a los 12-20 años. En el 17,2% de la muestra, se registró consumo de alcohol antes de la muerte y relación parental entre las víctimas. La tasa de mortalidad ajustada corregida fue 111,7/100.000 (IC95%, 84,6-148,6).

Conclusiones

El riesgo de suicidio de los indígenas de Tabatinga es muy alto. Las estrategias de afrontamiento deben considerar la compleja relación entre el suicidio y el consumo de alcohol, las diferencias de sexo y la existencia de grupos vulnerables, como los jóvenes, especialmente aquellos con parientes cercanos que ya cometieron suicidio.

Palabras clave:
Suicidio
Indios sudamericanos
Trastornos relacionados con alcohol
Composición familiar
Sexo y salud

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