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Vol. 146. Issue 11.
Pages 471-477 (June 2016)
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Vol. 146. Issue 11.
Pages 471-477 (June 2016)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.medcle.2016.07.001
Sociodemographic characteristics as risk factors for obesity and overweight in Spanish adult population
Características sociodemográficas como factores de riesgo para la obesidad y el sobrepeso en la población adulta española
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María Marqueta de Salasa,b,
Corresponding author
mmarqueta@hotmail.com

Corresponding author.
, José Javier Martín-Ramiroa,b, José Juan Juárez Sotoc
a Servicio de Cirugía General y Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Madrid, Spain
b Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
c Fundación San Pablo CEU Andalucía, Sevilla, Spain
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Prevalence and odds ratios of normal weight, overweight and obesity by autonomous community.
Table 2. Prevalence and odds ratios of normal weight. overweight and obesity according to the size of the municipality.
Table 3. Prevalence and odds ratios of normal weight, overweight and obesity according to different age and sex.
Table 4. Prevalence and odds ratios of normal weight, overweight and obesity according to social class.
Table 5. Prevalence and odds ratios of normal weight, overweight and obesity by marital status.
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Abstract
Objective

To analyze the adult Spanish sociodemographic characteristics associated with a higher risk of excess weight and obesity. As a second aim, we analyze if there are gender differences regarding the development of overweight and obesity in different age groups.

Material and methods

Transversal study of the National Health Survey of 2012. Body mass index was calculated and a number of sociodemographic variables were analyzed. An analysis of multinomial logistic regression was conducted.

Results

In 2012 the prevalence of obesity in Spain was 18.5% for obesity and 39.0% for being overweight. The greatest risk of being overweight or obese versus being of normal weight corresponded to men, married, between 65 and 74 years old, in social classes where unskilled work is performed, in the autonomous city of Ceuta, and the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Andalucía, and in municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. On the other hand, obesity risk is 2 times higher in men versus women between 25 and 64 years while overweight risk is higher in all age groups.

Conclusions

The sociodemographic characteristics associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese in Spain have changed compared to those published previously. In the year 2012, obesity was more common in males, the maximum peak was between 65 and 74 years and the area with the highest prevalence of obesity was the autonomous city of Ceuta.

Keywords:
Obesity
National Health Survey
Overweight
Epidemiology
Resumen
Objetivo

Analizar las características sociodemográficas de la población adulta española que suponen un mayor riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad. Por otro lado, analizar las diferencias por sexo en cuanto a la presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en las diferentes franjas de edad.

Material y métodos

Estudio transversal de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud del año 2012. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal y se analizaron una serie de variables sociodemográficas. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de regresión logística multinomial.

Resultados

En el año 2012 la prevalencia de obesidad en España fue del 18,5% y la de sobrepeso fue del 39,0%. El mayor riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad frente al peso normal correspondió a varones, casados, entre los 65 y los 74 años, en las clases sociales en que se realizan trabajos no cualificados, en la ciudad autónoma de Ceuta y las comunidades autónomas de Extremadura y Andalucía, y en los municipios de menos de 10.000 habitantes. Por otro lado, el riesgo de obesidad frente a normopeso fue de más del doble en varones respecto a mujeres entre los 25 y los 64 años y el riesgo de sobrepeso fue muy superior en todos los grupos de edad.

Conclusiones

Las características sociodemográficas asociadas a un mayor riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad en España han cambiado con respecto a lo publicado anteriormente. En el año 2012, la obesidad es más frecuente en varones, el pico máximo se encuentra entre los 65 y los 74 años para luego estabilizarse, y la zona con mayor prevalencia de obesidad es la ciudad autónoma de Ceuta.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad
Encuesta Nacional de Salud
Sobrepeso
Epidemiología

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