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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) Radiographic diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. An updated review
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Vol. 158. Issue 3.
Pages 125-132 (February 2022)
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Vol. 158. Issue 3.
Pages 125-132 (February 2022)
Review
Radiographic diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. An updated review
Diagnóstico radiológico de las fracturas vertebrales osteoporóticas. Una revisión actualizada
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Daniel López Zúñigaa, Antonio Jesús Láinez-Ramos-Bossinia,b, Fernando Ruiz Santiagoa,b,
Corresponding author
ferusan12@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
a Department of Radiology, “Virgen de las Nieves” University Hospital, Granada, Spain
b Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
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Table 1. Summary of the main classification methods for the diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF).
Abstract

The radiological diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) is of major importance considering its therapeutic and prognostic implications. Both radiologists and clinicians have the opportunity to diagnose OVFs in daily clinical practice due to the widespread use of spine and chest radiography. However, several studies have reported an under-diagnosis of OVFs, particularly by a lack of consensus on the diagnostic criteria. Therefore, up-to-date knowledge of the most relevant approaches for the diagnosis of OVFs is necessary for many physicians. This article aims to review the most commonly used classification systems in the diagnosis of OVFs based on conventional radiography. We discuss their rationale, advantages and limitations, as well as their utility according to the context. This review will provide a concise yet useful understanding of the typology of OVFs, their clinical significance and prognosis. Finally, we include anatomical variations that can be confused with OVFs by non-experts.

Keywords:
Osteoporosis
Vertebral fracture
Conventional radiography
Radiological diagnosis
Resumen

El diagnóstico radiológico de las fracturas vertebrales osteoporóticas (FVO) es de gran importancia, considerando sus implicaciones terapéuticas y pronósticas. Tanto los radiólogos como los facultativos tienen la oportunidad de diagnosticar las FVO en la práctica clínica diaria debido al uso extendido de las radiografías de columna y tórax. Sin embargo, diversos estudios han reportado el infradiagnóstico de las FVO, particularmente debido a la falta de consenso sobre los criterios diagnósticos. Por tanto, es necesario actualizar el conocimiento de los enfoques más relevantes en cuanto al diagnóstico de las FVO de muchos médicos. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar los sistemas de clasificación más comúnmente utilizados para diagnosticar las FVO sobre la base de la radiografía convencional. Debatimos sus fundamentos, ventajas y limitaciones, así como su utilidad con respecto al contexto. Esta revisión aportará una comprensión concisa y útil de la tipología de las FVO, su significación clínica y pronóstico. Por último, incluimos variaciones anatómicas que pueden ser confundidas con las FVO por los no expertos.

Palabras clave:
Osteoporosis
Fractura vertebral
Radiografía simple
Diagnóstico radiológico

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