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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in Western frontline healthcare profes...
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Vol. 156. Issue 9.
Pages 449-458 (May 2021)
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Vol. 156. Issue 9.
Pages 449-458 (May 2021)
Review
DOI: 10.1016/j.medcle.2020.11.003
Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in Western frontline healthcare professionals. A systematic review
Impacto psicológico de la COVID-19 en profesionales sanitarios de primera línea en el ámbito occidental. Una revisión sistemática
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Alina Danet Danet
Departamento de Sociología, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
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Table 1. Search strategy, terms and descriptors used.
Table 2. Inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Table 3. PRISMA and AMSTAR-2 items checklist for critical evaluation of the systematic review.
Table 4. Description and results of the studies included in the review.
Table 5. Evaluation of methodological quality.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the psychological impact among healthcare workers who stand in the frontline of the SARS-CoV-2 crisis and to compare it with the rest of healthcare professionals, by means of a systematic review of Western publications. The systematic review was carried out in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases and 12 descriptive studies were reviewed. The European and American quantitative studies reported moderate and high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and burnout, with diverse coping strategies and more frequent and intense symptoms among women and nurses, without conclusive results by age. In the first line of assistance the psychological impact was greater than in the rest of the health professionals and in the Asian area. It is necessary to go deeper into the emotional experiences and professional needs for emotional support in order to design effective interventions for protection and help.

Keywords:
Coronavirus
Health personnel
Emergency medical services
Intensive care units
Emotions
Stress psychological
Mental health
Systematic review
Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el impacto psicológico entre el personal sanitario de primera línea en la asistencia a pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 y compararlo con el resto de profesionales sanitarios, a través de una revisión sistemática de la producción científica en el ámbito occidental. La revisión se realizó en las bases PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science y se seleccionaron 12 artículos. Los estudios cuantitativos realizados en Europa y EE. UU. refirieron niveles moderados y altos de estrés, ansiedad, depresión, alteración del sueño y burnout, con estrategias de afrontamiento diversas y síntomas más frecuentes e intensos entre mujeres y enfermería, sin resultados concluyentes por edad. En la primera línea de asistencia, el impacto fue mayor que en el resto de profesionales sanitarios y que en el ámbito asiático. Se requiere profundizar en las experiencias emocionales y necesidades profesionales de apoyo emocional, para diseñar intervenciones eficaces de protección y ayuda.

Palabras clave:
Coronavirus
Personal de salud
Servicios médicos de urgencias
Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos
Emociones
Estrés psicológico
Salud mental
Revisión sistemática

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