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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) Obesity and cancer: “Dangerous friendship”
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Vol. 145. Issue 1.
Pages 24-30 (July 2015)
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Vol. 145. Issue 1.
Pages 24-30 (July 2015)
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DOI: 10.1016/j.medcle.2014.05.011
Obesity and cancer: “Dangerous friendship”
Obesidad y cáncer: «las amistades peligrosas»
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Carlos A. González Svatetza,
Corresponding author
cagonzalez@iconcologia.net

Corresponding author.
, Alberto Goday Arnób,c
a Unidad de Nutrición, Ambiente y Cáncer, Instituto Catalán de Oncología (ICO), L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
b Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital del Mar, Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
c Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER) Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Prevalence (%) of overweight and obesity in Spain, in individuals over the age of 18, according to sex and population study.
Table 2. Relative risk associated with overweight and obesity, and risk attributable to obesity with different cancers for which there is considered to be sufficient evidence of causality. Source: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research.24
Table 3. Relative risk associated with overweight and obesity, and risk attributable to obesity for different cancers probably associated with obesity.
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Abstract

Obesity and cancer are one of the most important health problems is Spain. Between 23 and 28% of the adult population in Spain are obese, 39% are overweight and 36% have abdominal obesity. The association between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep obstructive apnea is well known. On the contrary, the association between obesity and cancer is less known, because the recent evidence on it. Several prospective studies have shown during the last years the strong relationship between obesity and cancer of colon, breast in post-menopausal women, endometrial, kidney and pancreas as well as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore there is recent evidence showing that liver, gallbladder, thyroid and ovarian cancer as well as leukaemia, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin lymphomas are probably associated with obesity, yet more studies are needed. A better knowledge of the relation between cancer and obesity will allow improving the prevention strategies against cancer, a more efficient early detection, and a more suitable treatment of obesity and overweight. Although the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of obesity are not well established, avoiding overweight and obesity are considered one of the best approaches to reduce the risk of cancer. Therefore the general population must be aware that cancer is one of the most important hazards associated with the current obesity epidemic in our society.

Keywords:
Obesity
Cancer
Overweight
Obesity prevalence
Abdominal obesity
Resumen

Obesidad y cáncer son 2 problemas sanitarios de primera magnitud en España. La obesidad afecta al 23–28% de la población adulta española, y el sobrepeso y la obesidad abdominal al 39 y 36%, respectivamente. Es bien conocida la relación entre obesidad y diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia, y apnea obstructiva del sueño. Menos conocida es en cambio la asociación con el cáncer, porque la evidencia es más reciente. Numerosos estudios prospectivos han demostrado en los últimos años, con un alto grado de evidencia científica, una asociación clara entre la obesidad y los cánceres de colon y recto, mama en mujeres pos-menopáusicas, endometrio, riñón, esófago y páncreas. Esta asociación es también probable con los tumores de hígado, vesícula biliar, cardias, tiroides, y hematológicos, para los que se requieren más estudios. Un mejor conocimiento de la relación entre obesidad y cáncer puede permitir mejorar las estrategias de prevención del cáncer, así como una más eficiente detección precoz, y un tratamiento más adecuado de la obesidad y el sobrepeso. Aunque los mecanismos por los cuales la obesidad induce los distintos tipos de cánceres no son suficientemente conocidos, evitar el sobrepeso y la obesidad es hoy una de las medidas más efectivas para reducir el riesgo de cáncer, por lo que es necesario concienciar a la población general sobre uno de los mayores peligros que entraña la actual epidemia de obesidad.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad
Cáncer
Sobrepeso
Prevalencia obesidad
Obesidad abdominal

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