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Vol. 43. Issue 5.
Pages 429-435 (September - October 2015)
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Vol. 43. Issue 5.
Pages 429-435 (September - October 2015)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2014.05.006
Asthma in adolescents – Prevalence trends and associated factors in northeast Brazil
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S. Oliveira-Santosa,
Corresponding author
, J. Motta-Francob, I. Barretoc, D. Soléd, R. Gurgele
a Master in Health Science, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil
b University Hospital, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil
c Department of Statistics, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil
d Department of Paediatrics, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
e Department of Medicine, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil
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Tables (3)
Table 1. School and AD characteristics in the two ISAAC protocol based surveys in Aracaju (2003 and 2012).
Table 2. Prevalence of asthma-related symptoms among adolescents in Aracaju, 2003 and 2012.
Table 3. Variable relation to asthma in the not-adjusted and adjusted analyses with corresponding p-value, prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Adolescents from Aracaju, 2013.
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Abstract
Background

Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and adolescents (AD). We evaluated the prevalence of asthma and associated factors in adolescents living in a developing region in northeast Brazil using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) methodology.

Methods

According to the ISAAC protocol, AD (13–14 year olds, n=3,043 in 2003 and 3,009 in 2011–12) answered the standardised written questionnaire by themselves. In addition, in 2011–12 a random sample of these AD (n=430) also answered a complementary questionnaire (associated factors) and underwent a skin prick test with aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis, Blatella germanica, Periplaneta americana, dog dander, cat dander, mixed grass pollen and mixed moulds, including 10mg/mL histamine and negative controls). Data were analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis using Poisson regression.

Results

The prevalence of asthma in 2011–12 in Aracaju was 12.8%, which is lower than that recorded in 2003 (18.7%). Individuals with a dog outside the home (PR=0.93; 95%CI=0.88–0.98; p=0.018) and those with an older sibling (PR=0.94; 95%CI=0.91–0.98; p=0.005) were identified as protective. The presence of smokers in the residence (PR=1.04; 95%CI=1.00–1.09; p=0.039) was associated with an increased risk of developing asthma.

Conclusions

The prevalence of asthma was significantly lower than the last ISAAC figures reported for Aracaju. Tobacco smoking, a preventable factor, continues to be associated with an increase in the occurrence of asthma and other associations may concur with the hygiene hypothesis.

Keywords:
Asthma
ISAAC
Prevalence
Protection, Risk factors
Sensitisation

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