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Inicio Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad The passalid beetles (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Costa Rica, with the descript...
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Vol. 88. Núm. 3.
Páginas 608-615 (Septiembre 2017)
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Vol. 88. Núm. 3.
Páginas 608-615 (Septiembre 2017)
Taxonomy and systematics
DOI: 10.1016/j.rmb.2017.07.016
Open Access
The passalid beetles (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Costa Rica, with the description of two new species of Passalus
Los pasálidos (Coleoptera: Passalidae) de Costa Rica, con la descripción de dos especies nuevas de Passalus
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Larry Jiménez-Ferbansa,
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larryjimenezferbans@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Pedro Reyes-Castillob, Jack C. Schusterc, Cristian Beza-Bezad
a Grupo de Investigación en Evolución, Sistemática y Ecología Molecular, Universidad del Magdalena, Carrera 32 No 22-08, Apartado postal 2-1-21630, Santa Marta, Colombia
b Red de Biodiversidad y Sistemática, Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Carretera antigua a Coatepec 351, El Haya, 91070 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
c Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Apartado postal 82, 01901 Guatemala, Guatemala
d Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Memphis, 3700 Walker Av., Memphis, TN 38152, USA
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Table 1. List of species of Passalidae from Costa Rica.
Abstract

Two new endemic, brachypterous species of Passalus (Pertinax) from mid and high montane habitats of the Sierra de Talamanca, Costa Rica, are described and illustrated. Additionally, a checklist for the bess beetle species of Costa Rica is provided.

Keywords:
Bess beetles
Diversity
Taxonomy
Brachypterous
Resumen

Se describen e ilustran 2 especies nuevas endémicas de Passalus (Pertinax) con alas reducidas de mediana y alta montaña de la Sierra de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Adicionalmente, se provee un listado de las especies de pasálidos de Costa Rica.

Palabras clave:
Pasálidos
Diversidad
Taxonomía
Braquipterismo
Texto completo
Introduction

Passalidae are a pantropical group of Coleoptera. In the Western Hemisphere, the family is represented by the tribes Proculini and Passalini. Passalus is the most speciose genus of Passalini. Within Passalidae, Passalus is the genus with the widest geographic distribution, being found from the United States to Argentina (Jiménez-Ferbans, Reyes-Castillo, Schuster, & Salazar, 2013; Schuster, 1983). Veturius is the most speciose genus of Proculini. These 2 genera are rich in South and Central America, but Passalus (Passalus) is richer in the Amazon lowlands and many Proculini genera are richer in the mountains of South and Central America.

In their Passalidae catalog, Hincks and Dibb (1935, 1958) cite 48 species of Passalidae for Costa Rica, the majority being Passalus. However, no recent monograph accurately lists the number of bess beetle species in this country. As a contribution to the documentation of the biodiversity of Costa Rica, we present a checklist of Passalidae from Costa Rica (Table 1) and describe 2 new species of Passalus from the montane areas of the Sierra de Talamanca.

Table 1.

List of species of Passalidae from Costa Rica.

Passalini (18 species) 
Passalus Fabricius, 1792 
Subgenus Passalus s. str. 
Section “Neleus” 
Passalus interstitialis Eschscholtz, 1829; 
Passalus barbatus Lepeletier & Serville, 1825 (non Fabricius, 1801); 
Passalus acuminatus Eschscholtz, 1829; 
Passalus compar Erichson, 1847; 
Neleus interstitialis Kaup, 1869 (non Eschscholtz, 1829); 
Ninus interstitialis Kaup, 1869; 
Ninus amazonicus Kuwert, 1891; 
Ninus hondurae Kuwert, 1891; 
Ninus assimilatusKuwert, 1898
Ninus bergiKuwert, 1898
Ninus cayennensisKuwert, 1898
Ninus columbicusKuwert, 1898
Ninus consimilisKuwert, 1898
Ninus infallibilisKuwert, 1898
Ninus mazatlanicusKuwert, 1898
Ninus signisternusKuwert, 1898
Ninus subsimilatusKuwert, 1898
Ninus nobiliiPangella, 1905
Ninus rosminaePangella, 1905
aPassalus nevermanniLuederwaldt, 1941
Passalus punctiger Lepeletier et Serville, 1825; 
Lucanus interruptus Olivier, 1789 (non Linnaeus, 1764); 
Passalus tlascala Percheron, 1835; 
Neleus chilensis Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus guatemalae Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus distinguendus Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus laeviclypeatus Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus nicaraguae Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus sanio Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus scelus Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus scepticus Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus scurra Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus suturalis Kuwert, 1891 (non Burmeister, 1847); 
Neleus transvaalensis Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus vagans Kuwert, 1891; 
Neleus acarinatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus aequatorisKuwert, 1898
Neleus altidensKuwert, 1898
Neleus approximatidentatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus arcuatotaeniatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus argentinusKuwert, 1898
Neleus arrogansKuwert, 1898
Neleus boliviensisKuwert, 1898
Neleus coarctatusKuwert, 1898 (non Percheron, 1835); 
Neleus difformisKuwert, 1898
Neleus dilatidentatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus dilatipunctalusKuwert, 1898
Neleus dilatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus disjunctusKuwert, 1898
Neleus dislocandusKuwert, 1898
Neleus disparKuwert, 1898
Neleus dispositusKuwert, 1898
Neleus distinctusKuwert, 1898
Neleus durangiKuwert, 1898
Neleus intermissusKuwert, 1898
Neleus obtusecornutusKuwert, 1898
Neleus scurroidesKuwert, 1898
Neleus scutellosulcatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus subcarinaefronsKuwert, 1898
Neleus subcarinatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus sulcicornisKuwert, 1898
Neleus taeniolatusKuwert, 1898
Neleus festae Rosmini, 1902; 
Neleus cognettiiPangella, 1905
Neleus unicornis Moreira, 1922 (non Lepeletier et Serville, 1825); 
Passalus microcollis Luederwaldt, 1931; 
Passalus riograndensis Luederwaldt, 1931. 
 
Section “Phoroneus” 
Passalus jansoni (Bates, 1886); 
Phoroneus jansoni Bates, 1886; 
Phanocles nudusKuwert, 1898
aPassalus labroexcisus (Kuwert, 1898); 
Neleus labroexcisusKuwert, 1898
Subgenus Pertinax Kaup, 1869; 
Passalus alfaroi (Pangella, 1905); 
Paxillosomus alfariPangella, 1905
Paxillus rufiventris Luederwaldt, 1934; 
Tetraracus centralis Arrow, 1907; 
Passalus caelatus Erichson, 1847; 
Rhodocanthopus caelatus: Kaup, 1871 (non Erichson, 1847); 
Rhodocanthopus nanus Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus perversus Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus solidus Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus sulcatus Kuwert, 1891; 
Passalus clypeoneleus (Kuwert, 1891); 
Rhodocanthopus clypeoneleus Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus formosiceps Kuwert, 1891, n. syn.; 
Passalus halffterorum n. sp.; 
Passalus rzedowskiorum n. sp.; 
Passalus maillei Percheron, 1841; 
Epiphanus molestus Kuwert, 1891; 
Passalus perparvulus (Kuwert, 1898); 
Rhodocanthopus perparvulusKuwert, 1898
Passalus punctatostriatus Percheron, 1835; 
Passalus contractus Percheron, 1841; 
Rhodocanthopus hoffmanni Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus ignavus Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus laticollis Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus mundus Kuwert, 1891; 
Rhodocanthopus curtus Bates, 1886; 
Rhodocanthopus maillei Bates, 1886 (non Percheron, 1841); 
Aponelides nescioKuwert, 1898
Aponelides parabolicusKuwert, 1898
Aponelides praestansKuwert, 1898
Aponelides sincerusKuwert, 1898
Aponelides singularisKuwert, 1898
Aponelides superfluusKuwert, 1898
Passalus spiniger (Bates, 1886); 
Rhodocanthopus spiniger Bates, 1886; 
Passalus spinipes Gravely, 1918; 
Passalus spinosus (Kuwert, 1898); 
Rhodocanthopus spinosusKuwert, 1898
Rhodocanthopus biolleyiPangella, 1905
Rhodocanthopus spineusKuwert, 1898, n. syn.; 
Paxillus Macleay, 1819; 
Paxillus leachi Macleay, 1819; 
Passalus depressus Drapiez, 1819; 
Passalus brasiliensis Lepeletier et Serville, 1825; 
Rhodocanthopus anguliferoides Kuwert, 1891; 
Paxillus minor Kuwert, 1891; 
Paxillus parvus Casey, 1897; 
Paxillus consobrinusKuwert, 1898
Paxillus denticulatusKuwert, 1898
Paxillus latisternusKuwert, 1898
Paxilloides schmidtiKuwert, 1898
Paxillus brasiliensis Luederwaldt, 1931 (non Lepeletier et Serville, 1825) 
Paxillus nitidior Bechyné, 1943; 
Ptichopus Kaup, 1869; 
Ptichopus angulatus (Percheron, 1835); 
Passalus angulatus Percheron, 1835; 
Passalus nodus Apetz, 1837; 
Passalus thoracicus Smith, 1852; 
Ptichopus aberrator Kuwert, 1891; 
Ptichopus borellii Rosmini, 1902; 
Ptichopus inca Kuwert, 1891; 
Ptichopus inflatusKuwert, 1898
Ptichopus montezuma Kuwert, 1891; 
Ptichopus nitidus Kuwert, 1891; 
Ptichopus melzeriBoucher, 2006 (non Luederwaldt, 1927). 
Proculini (35 species): 
Arrox Zang, 1905; 
Arrox agassizi (Kaup, 1871); 
Sertorius agassiziKaup, 1871
Sertorius assmanni Kuwert, 1897; 
Heliscus Zang, 1905; 
Heliscus eclipticus (Truqui, 1857); 
Passalus eclipticus Truqui, 1857; 
Popilius guatemalae Gravely, 1918; 
Popilius felschei Kuwert, 1891; 
Popilius varius Kuwert, 1891; 
Popilius frantzi Kuwert, 1897; 
Heliscus wagneri (Kaup, 1868); 
Passalus wagneri Kaup; 
Odontotaenius Kuwert, 1896; 
aOdontotaenius decipiens (Kuwert, 1897); 
Petrejoides decipiens Kuwert, 1897; 
Odontotaenius striatopunctatus (Percheron, 1835); 
Passalus striatopunctatus Percheron, 1835; 
Popilius mancus Luederwaldt, 1931; 
Popilius pedunculatus Luederwaldt, 1931; 
Oileus Kaup, 1869; 
Oileus sargi (Kaup, 1871); 
Rimor sargi Kaup, 1871; 
Rimor honestus Kuwert, 1897; 
Petrejoides Kuwert, 1896; 
aPetrejoides abnormalis (Luederwaldt, 1941); 
Popilius abnormalisLuederwaldt, 1941
aPetrejoides hirsutus (Luederwaldt, 1941); 
Popilius hirsutusLuederwaldt, 1941
aPetrejoides lenzi (Kuwert, 1897); 
Popilius lenzi Kuwert, 1897; 
Petrejoides subrecticornis (Kuwert, 1897); 
Soranus subrecticornis Kuwert, 1897; 
Popilius scutellopunctatus Kuwert, 1897; 
Petrejoides wagneriBoucher, 2006 (non Kaup, 1868); 
Petrejoides tau (Kaup, 1869); 
Pertinax tau Kaup, 1869; 
Passalus klingelhofferi Kaup, 1869; 
Soranus intergeneus Bates, 1886; 
Popilius punctatissimusLuederwaldt, 1941
Petrejoides tenuis Kuwert, 1897; 
Popilius Kaup, 1869; 
Popilius erotylusReyes-Castillo & Castillo, 1992
aPopilius rectangulatusLuederwaldt, 1941
aPopilius rotundicornisLuederwaldt, 1941
PseudoarroxReyes-Castillo, 1970
aPseudoarrox karreniReyes-Castillo, 1970
Spurius Kaup, 1871; 
Spurius bicornis (Truqui, 1857); 
Passalus bicornis Truqui, 1857; 
VerresKaup, 1871 [synonyms of Neoverres costaricensisHincks, 1934, Verres costaricensisLuederwaldt, 1941 and Verres luederwaldtiReyes-Castillo, 1970 taken from Marshall, (2000)]; 
Verres cavicollis Bates, 1886; 
Verres cameraniPangella, 1905
Verres cavilabris Casey, 1896; 
Verres corticicola (Truqui, 1857); 
Passalus corticicola Truqui, 1857; 
Verres corticolaKaup, 1871
Verres angustatus Kuwert, 1891, n. syn.; 
Verres deficiens Kuwert, 1891; 
Verres deflexicornis Kuwert, 1998, n. syn.; 
Verres hageniKaup, 1871
Verres hageniiKaup, 1871
Verres cavifrons Kuwert, 1891; 
Verres sternipunctatus Kuwert, 1891; 
Verres vernicatus Casey, 1897, n. syn.; 
Verres cavicollisKuwert, 1898 (non Bates, 1886); 
Verres muzoensisHincks, 1950
aVerres longicornis (Luederwaldt, 1934); 
Platyverres longicornis Luederwaldt, 1934; 
Neoverres costaricensisHincks, 1934, n. syn. 
Verres sternbergianus Zang, 1905; 
Verres costaricensisLuederwaldt, 1941, n. syn.; 
Verres luederwaldtiReyes-Castillo, 1970, n. syn.; 
VeturiusKaup, 1871
Subgenus Publius 
Veturius solisiBoucher, 2006
Veturius talamacaensisBoucher, 2006
Subgenus Ouayana 
Veturius cirratus Bates, 1886; 
Veturius criniceps Kuwert, 1891; 
aVeturius laevior (Kaup, 1868); 
Proculejus laeviorKaup, 1868
Veturius lineatosulcatusLuederwaldt, 1941
Veturius ptichopoidesBoucher, 2006
aVeturius ultimusBoucher, 2006
Subgenus Veturius 
Veturius aquilonalisBoucher, 2006
Veturius aspinaKuwert, 1898
Veturius sinuatocollis Kuwert, 1890; 
Veturius sinuatosulcatus Gravely, 1918; 
Veturius aculeatusLuederwaldt, 1941
Veturius schusteriBoucher, 2006
aVeturius sinuatomarginatus Luderwaldt, 1941; 
Veturius tuberculifrons Kuwert, 1891; 
Veturius isthmicus Arrow, 1907; 
Veturius latisulcatusLuederwaldt, 1941
a

Endemic species.

Materials and methods

For the list of species, we follow the classification of Boucher (2006); for the descriptions, we use the terminology of Boucher (2006) for the cephalic region (except when indicated) and Reyes-Castillo (1970) for the rest of the body. We used a caliper for metric measurements; illustrations were made using a camera lucida. The specimens are deposited in the following entomological collections: Colección Entomológica del Instituto de Ecología, A. C., México (IEXA); Colección Nacional de Insectos del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CNI-UNAM); Colección Entomológica, Universidad del Magdalena, Colombia (CBUMAG-ENT); Colección de Artrópodos de la Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (UVGC); Michigan State University Collection (MSUC); The Field Museum of Chicago (FMNH); and the personal collection of Dr. Alan Gillogly in Caldwell, USA (ARGC).

To elaborate the checklist (Table 1), we surveyed literature to gather information about the Passalidae from Costa Rica and reviewed material deposited in the collections cited above, and also we reviewed material from the American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH); United States National Museum of Natural History, Washington (USNM); California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS); Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburg (CMNH); Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (PANS); Museo de Historia Natural de Costa Rica, San José (MHNCR); Museo de Entomología de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Costa Rica, San José (MEUNCR); Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, San José (CATIEC), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (MZSP); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Brussels (IRSN); Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN); and Museo di Zoologia della Universitá di Torino, Torino (MZUT).

DescriptionsPassalus (Pertinax) halffterorum n. sp. (Fig. 1)

Description: Habitus: midsize, total length 24.0–28.9mm, brachypterous, body convex shiny black. Head: labrum with anterior border straight or slightly concave, covered with scarce setae, setae are less dense in medial labrum. Clypeus hidden under the frons, with anterior angles strongly developed under the mediofrontal tubercles and of similar size as mediofrontal tubercles. Frons wide, anterior frontal edge with small middle indentation, without secondary mediofrontal tubercles. Mediofrontal tubercles projected forward, smaller than inner tubercles. Inner tubercles conical, with free apex, joined to mediofrontal tubercles by a weak ridge, placed mid distance between the mediofrontal tubercles and the central tubercle apex. Posterofrontal ridges “V” shaped. Area between the frontal ridges heavily punctuated on the anterior half. Cephalic mamelon (sensuJiménez-Ferbans & Reyes-Castillo, 2014) present and whole. Mesofrontal structure of the “marginatus” type (Reyes-Castillo, 1970), with central tubercle wide at the base, with or without a sulcus in the posterior part, apex not free. Lateroposterior tubercles marked. Lateropostfrontal areas glabrous, shiny, and impunctate. Eyes reduced, with canthus covering ½ of the eye in lateral view. Canthus glabrous or with 3 setae at the margin of the eye. Postfrontal groove semicircular and complete. Hypostomal process slightly separated from mentum, glabrous and reaching the superior part of the middle zone of the mentum. Medial basal mentum protruding ventrally, with fine line of setae at the posterior margin and reduced punctures (4) on its anterior border. Mentum with large lateral fossae, deep, glabrous and opaque. Antennal club trilamellate, with lamellae short (h longer than w, Fig. 1A). Internal tooth of the left mandible bidentate, simple on the right mandible. Dorsal tooth straight in dorsal view and slightly concave in lateral view. Dorsal mandibular pubescence covering the base of the mobile tooth and reaching the base of the internal tooth. Mandibular fossae short, reaching only half of the base of the mobile tooth. Maxilla with lacinia bidentate at the apex. Ligula tridentate, with middle tooth longer than lateral teeth. Middle palpomere of the labial palp 1.2 times wider and with the same length as the distal palpomere.

Figure 1.

Passalus (Pertinax) halffterorum n. sp.; A, head and anterior part of pronotum; B, ventral view of aedeagus; C, lateral (left) view of aedeagus; D, dorsal view of aedeagus. Scale bars: 1mm.

(0,32MB).

Thorax: pronotum with anterior angles sharp and posterior angles rounded, wider than elytra, with punctuations restricted to the lateral fossae areas. Marginal groove wide, occupying ¾ of the anterior margin of the pronotum, impunctate on the posterior half. Longitudinal sulcus well marked. Lateral fossae slightly marked, with 2 punctures on the right side and smooth on the left side. Punctures of the pronotum restricted to the marginal groove and fossae. Prosternellum rhomboidal, shiny. Pre-epimeron (sensuReyes-Castillo, 1970) shiny and glabrous. Mesosternum without mesosternal scar, indicated only by an opaque anterior area, impunctate and glabrous; lateral area opaque. Posterior corner of the mesepisternum and mesepimere glabrous. Anterolateral part of metasternum smooth and glabrous, but with moderate punctures with 1–2minute setae on the sides of mesocoxae. Metasternal disc short, strongly convex posteriorly, with dense strong punctures, rarely with 1 or 2 punctures; delimited by numerous strong punctures medially and posteriorly. Posterior metasternal lateral fossa of the same width as epipleura and narrower than mesotibia.

Elytra: shiny, anterior border rounded and glabrous. Humeri with scarce minute setae. Epipleura with reduced group of short setae basally. Striae with rounded punctures, marked on both lateral and dorsal striae.

Legs: femur I with ventral anterior marginal sulcus wide and incomplete, not reaching the apical pubescence. Tibia I with dorsal sulcus complete or incomplete. Tibia II with 2 strong spines and 1 weak spine. Tibia III with moderately strong spine.

Abdomen: last sternite with marginal groove incomplete.

Aedeagus: basal piece partially fused with parameres in ventral view (Fig. 1B). Median lobe almost entirely sclerotized on ventral surface, length is 1.1 times the length of the basal piece and parameres, measured at the median ventral line. Lateral projections of the parameres large and apex truncated in lateral view (Fig. 1C).

Variation: the medial part of the mentum completely glabrous or with a line of setae on its posterior margin, rarely completely pubescent. Some specimens without left pronotal fossa, others with up to 3 punctures in each fossa. Some with small mesosternal scars. Mesotibia in MSU specimen with 3 weak spines on left, 1 strong and 1 weak on right.

Taxonomic summary

Holotype male. Costa Rica: Villa Mills, Cerro de la Muerte, “53”, 18.II.1975/Passalus (Pertinax) sp. nov. Reyes-Castillo det. 1987 (IEXA).

Paratypes (2♀♀, 1♂ and 44 sex unknown). Costa Rica: Villa Mills, Cerro de la Muerte [with numbers 48, 49, 50, 53, 54 in each specimen], 18.II.1975/Passalus (Pertinax) sp. nov. Reyes-Castillo det. 1987 (5 specimens, sex unknown, IEXA). 2♀♀, Costa Rica: San José, C. de la Muerte, Auxiliadora, 2,700m snm, 1.IX.2000, I. Chacon y J. Monzón. (UVGC). Costa Rica: Prov. San José. San Isidro del General Cerro de la Muerte. 23.IX.1969. P. Reyes y G. Halffter, cols./Bosque de Encinos. alt. 2,750m. En tronco de encino (8 specimens, sex unknown, 7 IEXA, 1 FMNH). Costa Rica: Prov. San José. Villa Mills. 23.IX.1969 P. Reyes y G. Halffter, cols./Bosque de Encinos. alt. 2,750m. En tronco podrido (13 specimens, sex unknown, 10 IEXA, 3 CBUMAG-ENT); same data as previous 19.IX.1969/Bosque de encino. alt. 2,680m. En tronco podrido (3 specimens, sex unknown, IEXA); same data as previous 20.IX.1969 (4 specimens, sex unknown, IEXA). Costa Rica: San José. Villa Mills. Elv. 3,075m. 14.VIII.1967 [R. Pope, leg.] (10 specimens, sex unknown, 5 IEXA, 5 CBUMAG-ENT). Costa Rica, Cerro de la Muerte 25.VIII.1970 Pat Rich (1 specimen, sex unknown, MSUC). Costa Rica, 31 mi.[km?] SSE Cartago, Tres de Junio Mountain, 7.II.1971, under log, R. Foster (1♂, 4 specimens, sex unknown, ARGC).

Etymology: this species is named in honor of Gonzalo Halffter and Violeta Halffter, distinguished coleopterists, founders of the Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Xalapa, with whom the second author (PRC) had the privilege of collecting passalids in Costa Rica with the support of the OTS.

Remarks

Passalus halffterorum n. sp. has the middle tibias armed and reduced eyes, similar to Passalus spinosus and Passalus spiniger; however, in these latter species the posterior tibias are strongly armed and the frontal ridges have secondary internal teeth, different from P. halffterorum n. sp. Likewise, a distinct characteristic of P. halffterorum n. sp. is the evident hind wing reduction (brachypterous), with the pronotum wider than the base of the elytra.

Passalus (Pertinax) rzedowskiorum n. sp. (Fig. 2)

Description: habitus: midsize, total length 26.0–35.8mm, hemibrachypterous, body convex shiny black. Head: labrum with anterior border slightly concave, covered with scarce setae that are less dense anteromedially. Clypeus hidden under the frons, with anterior angles reduced, placed under the mediofrontal tubercles, smaller than mediofrontal tubercles. Frons wide, anterior frontal edge with light or strong medial indentation (notched), without secondary mediofrontal tubercles. Mediofrontal tubercles projected forward, larger than inner tubercles. Inner tubercles conical, projected upwards, joined to mediofrontal tubercles by a weak ridge, placed at mid distance between the mediofrontal tubercles and the central tubercle apex. Posterofrontal ridges “V” shaped. Area between frontal ridges heavily punctate on the anterior half. Cephalic mamelon (sensuJiménez-Ferbans & Reyes-Castillo, 2014) present and whole. Mesofrontal structure of the “marginatus” type (Reyes-Castillo, 1970), with central tubercle wide at the base, without a sulcus posteriorly, apex not free. Lateroposterior tubercles marked. Lateropostfrontal areas glabrous, shiny, and mostly impunctate, but with conspicuous striae. Eyes reduced, with canthus covering 2/3 of the eye in lateral view. Canthus glabrous. Postfrontal groove complete with an inverted “V” at the mid-part. Hypostomal process slightly separated from mentum, glabrous and reaching the upper part of the mid zone of the mentum. Medial-basal mentum protruding ventrally, pubescent on the posterior half. Mentum with big lateral fossae, deep and glabrous. Antennal club trilamellate, with short lamellae. Mandibles tridentate on the apex, with teeth of similar size. Internal tooth of the left mandible bidentate, simple on the right mandible. Dorsal tooth straight in dorsal view and slightly concave in lateral view. Dorsal mandibular pubescence covering the base of the mobile tooth and reaching the base of the internal tooth. Mandibular fossae covering entirely the base of the mobile tooth. Maxilla with lacinia bidentate at the apex. Ligula tridentate, with middle tooth longer and lateral teeth reduced. Middle palpomere of the labial palp 1.5 times wider and with almost the same length as the distal palpomere.

Figure 2.

Passalus (Pertinax) rzedowskiorum n. sp.; A, head and anterior part of pronotum; B, ventral view of aedeagus; C, lateral (left) view of aedeagus; D, dorsal view of aedeagus. Scale bars: 1mm.

(0,36MB).

Thorax: pronotum square, with anterior angles sharp and posterior angles rounded, slightly wider than elytra, with punctuations restricted to the lateral fossae area (1 or 2 punctures) and marginal groove. Marginal groove wide, occupying ½ of the anterior margin of the pronotum. Longitudinal sulcus well marked. Lateral fossae slightly marked, with or without punctures. Prosternellum rhomboidal. Pre-epimeron (sensuReyes-Castillo, 1970) shiny and glabrous. Mesosternum with mesosternal scar slightly marked, oval shaped, impunctate and glabrous; lateral area opaque. Posterior corner of the mesepisternum and mesepimere glabrous. Anterolateral part of metasternum smooth and glabrous. Metasternal disc short, slightly convex posteriorly, without or with scarce punctures (4); delimited by numerous punctures medially and posteriorly. Posterior metasternal lateral fossa narrower than epipleura.

Elytra: shiny, anterior border rectangular and glabrous. Humeri and epipleura glabrous. Striae with rectangular punctures, marked on both lateral and dorsal striae.

Legs: femur I with ventral anterior marginal sulcus wide and complete, reaching the apical pubescence. Tibia I with dorsal sulcus complete or incomplete. Tibia II with 1 strong spine and 1 weak spine. Tibia III with moderately strong spine.

Abdomen: last sternite with marginal groove incomplete.

Aedeagus: basal piece fused with parameres in ventral view (Fig. 2B). Median lobe almost entirely sclerotized on ventral surface, length is 1.1 times the length of the basal piece and parameres, measured at the medial ventral line. Lateral projections of the parameres large and apex rounded in lateral view (Fig. 2C).

Variation: the notch in frons can be well marked (deep) or weak. The mestasternal disc can be smooth or with scarce punctures (4 punctures).

Taxonomic summary

Holotype male. Costa Rica: Prov. San José. San Isidro del General 21.IX.1969. P. Reyes y G. Halffter, cols./Selva tropical de montaña, alt. 1480m. en tronco podrido (IEXA).

Paratypes (3♀♀ and 8 sex unknown). 1♀ and 2 sex unknown, Costa Rica: Prov. San José, San Isidro del General. 21-IX-1969. P. Reyes y G. Halffter, cols./Selva tropical de montaña, alt. 1,480m. en tronco podrido (IEXA). 2♀♀ and 2 sex unknown, Costa Rica: Prov. San José, San Isidro del General, 22.IX.1969. P. Reyes y G. Halffter, cols./Selva tropical de montaña, alt. 1,480m. en tronco podrido, (3 IEXA, 1 CBUMAG-ENT). 2 sex unknown, Costa Rica: Prov. San José, Rd. to San Isidro el General, ∼2700m, 6.II.1979. N. Rizzo (UVGC). 1 sex unknown, Costa Rica: Prov. San José, PanAmerican Hwy, km 70. Mirador del Quetzal. 9°38’37” N, 83 51’2” W. 2,690 m. 20.VII.2000. J. Asche, R. Brooks, Z. Falin CR1 ABFOO 198 ex. under logs//SMO 204354 KUNHM-ENT (UVGC). 1 sex unknown, Costa Rica: P.N. Tapanti, La Esperanza 2680m Monzón y Camposeco/Passalus (Pertinax) sp. nov. det.: Jiménez-Ferbans (UVG).

Etymology: this species is named in honor of Jerzy Rzedowski and Graciela Calderón de Rzedowski, emeritus researchers of the Instituto de Ecología A.C., for their contributions and studies on taxonomy and biogeography of the Mexican flora.

Taxonomic remarks: the meso- and metatibiae with moderate strong spine relates P. rzedowskiorum with the Rhodocanthopus species group (sensuJiménez-Ferbans, Reyes-Castillo, & González, 2016), especially with species with strong elytral striae. However, the shape of anterior part of elytra (humeri very acute) and the body size easily distinguish P. rzedowskiorum. Another characteristic trait of P. rzedowskiorum is its lateropostfrontal areas (frontal fossae sensuReyes-Castillo, 1970) with conspicuous striae.

Nomenclatural comments of the checklist

Passalus (Pertinax) clypeoneleus (Kuwert, 1891): Hincks and Dibb (1935) considered Rhodocanthopus spineusKuwert, 1898 as a synonym of P. clypeoneleus. However, here we synonymized R. spineus Kuwert with Passalus spinosus (Kuwert). As established in this work, Rhodocanthopus formosiceps Kuwert, 1891, which is considered a synonym of Passalus caelatus Erichson, is actually a synonym of Passalus clypeoneleus (Kuwert). These proposals are based on examination of the type material of these 4 species, deposited in the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris.

Verres corticicola (Truqui, 1857): Hincks and Dibb (1935) considered Verres angustatus Kuwert, 1891 as a valid species. Examination of the type material of V. angustatus, deposited in the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, allows us to propose this species as a synonym of Verres corticicola (Truqui).

Verres deficiens Kuwert, 1991: in the catalogue of Hincks and Dibb (1935), V. deficiens Kuwert is considered as a synonym of V. furcilabris (Eschscholtz). We have examined the type material of V. deficiens and consider it as a valid species. Likewise, we have examined the type material of Verres deflexicornis Kuwert, 1998 and this species must be considered as synonym of Verres deficiens Kuwert. The types of Kuwert's species are deposited in the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris.

Verres hageniKaup, 1871: V. vernicatus Casey, 1897 was revalidated by Hincks (1950) in his key to the species of Verres. After examining the type material, deposited in the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., we propose V. vernicatus Casey, as a synonym of Verres hageni Kaup.

Species with erroneous or dubious literature records

Passalus (Pertinax) perparvulus (Kuwert): cited from Costa Rica by Pangella (1905). We have examined the specimen studied by Pangella (1905) (deposited in MZUT) and it is very similar to small specimens of P. caelatus Erichson, with which it could be a synonym.

Passalus (Pertinax) spinipes Gravely: originally described from Nicaragua, Hincks (1934) cited it from Costa Rica; we have not studied specimens from Costa Rica.

Passalus (Passalus) interruptus (Linnaeus): a species from South America, its distributional northern boundary is the Panama Canal (Reyes-Castillo & Castillo, 1992). The Costa Rican specimens cited as P. interruptus may correspond to P. (Passalus) punctiger Lepeletier & Serville. Following the criterion of Reyes-Castillo and Castillo (1992), we have excluded this species from the list.

Passalus (Passalus) labroexcisus (Kuwert): described by Kuwert (1898) based on 1 specimen without locality, was considered a synonym of P. punctiger Lepeletier & Serville in the catalogue of Hincks and Dibb (1935). However, P. labroexcisus was treated as a valid species by Luederwaldt (1934a), who studied a specimen of the A. Alfaro collection from “Costa Rica, Tempique, I-1932”. Finally, Hincks and Dibb (1958) followed the criterion of Luederwaldt (1934a) and assigned it to the “Phoroneus” section of Passalus.

Passalus (Passalus) nevermanniLuederwaldt, 1941: described from Costa Rica in a posthumous publication, this species would correspond to a synonym of P. (Passalus) punctiger Lepeletier & Serville. In the description, Luederwaldt (1941) only cited a specimen from “Costa Rica, I-1933” in the collection of F. Nevermann.

Yumtaax recticornis (Burmeister): cited from “La Palma”, Costa Rica by Alfaro (1935), is a montane species endemic to Mexico (Castillo & Reyes-Castillo, 1984). We have excluded this species from the list.

Heliscus wagneri (Kaup): although the original description by Kaup (1868) cites a specimen from Guatemala, a later work (Kaup, 1871: 108–109) only mentions 2 specimens from Nicaragua; it is cited from Costa Rica by Biolley (1901); Reyes-Castillo (1970) confused it with Petrejoides subrecticornis (Kuwert). We have not seen specimens or the type.

Proculus mniszechi Kaup: this species was cited from the humid mountains of Carrillo (Braulio Carrillo, National Park) in Costa Rica by Alfaro (1935). However, it is endemic to Guatemala and Honduras (Schuster, Cano, & Reyes-Castillo, 2003) and we know of no specimens from Costa Rica. We have excluded this species from the list.

Veturius (Publius) crassus (Smith): is described from Colombia; Luederwaldt (1934b) cited it from Costa Rica as did Alfaro (1935) from Volcán Irazú (3,400m). However, Reyes-Castillo and Castillo (1992) rejected that citation, indicating that V. crassus is endemic to Colombia; the same was said by Boucher (2006). We have excluded this species from the list.

Discussion

We have listed 53 species of Passalidae of Costa Rica (18 Passalini and 35 Proculini). This is a relative high level of richness, considering that Costa Rica has an area of 51,100km2, compared with the number of species in larger countries like Guatemala (90 species), Mexico (83 described species and 22 not described, Reyes-Castillo, Rojas-Gómez, & Vázquez, 2006) and Colombia (87, Amat-García, Blanco-Vargas, & Reyes-Castillo, 2004).

Proculini dominate the composition of Passalidae in Costa Rica, similar to what occurs in Guatemala and Mexico, but different from what occurs in South America. However, a high percentage of Costa Rican Proculini (35 species) belong to Veturius (12 species), which is a highly diversified genus in South America. The other speciose genera in Costa Rica are Petrejoides and Verres (6 species each), which have an important level of diversification in the southern part of Central America. On the other hand, Passalini are dominated by Passalus (Pertinax) having 11 of the 18 species of the tribe; of these 11 species, 6 belong to the Rhodocanthopus species group (sensuJiménez-Ferbans, Reyes-Castillo, & González, 2016), which has a clear Mesoamerican lowland distribution (Jiménez-Ferbans et al., 2016).

There are 13 endemic species of Passalidae in Costa Rica, most of them distributed in mountainous areas. The genus with more endemic species is Petrejoides, in which 3 of the 6 species are exclusive for Costa Rica. Likewise, the genus Veturius shows a high level of endemism in the region of the Sierra de Talamanca (between Costa Rica and Panama). This pattern of endemism in the high mountain area is common in Passalidae from Mexico to northern South America (Gutiérrez-Velázquez, Rojas-Soto, Reyes-Castillo, & Halffter, 2013; Schuster, 1978), and normally is dominated by species of Proculini and species of Passalus (Pertinax).

Concluding, the Costa Rican passalid fauna is relatively well known compared to nearby countries. However, more exploration is required in habitats with the highest levels of endemism (i.e. montane cloud forests), in order to complete the list of the Passalidae of this country.

Acknowledgements

To Santiago Zaragoza, curator of Coleoptera in the Colección Nacional de Insectos, Instituto de Biología, UNAM, for his hospitability during the review of CNIN-UNAM. We also thank Sara Rivera for the illustrations of the new species. This work was partially funded by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Mexico, project 169604. This is Scientific Contribution No. 7 from the Centro de Colecciones Biológicas, Universidad del Magdalena.

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