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Inicio Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI Sistema Automático Para la Detección de Distracción y Somnolencia en Conducto...
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Vol. 14. Núm. 3.
Páginas 307-328 (Julio - Septiembre 2017)
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Vol. 14. Núm. 3.
Páginas 307-328 (Julio - Septiembre 2017)
DOI: 10.1016/j.riai.2017.05.001
Open Access
Sistema Automático Para la Detección de Distracción y Somnolencia en Conductores por Medio de Características Visuales Robustas
Automatic System to Detect Both Distraction and Drowsiness in Drivers Using Robust Visual Features
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Alberto Fernández Villána,
Autor para correspondencia
alberto.fernandez@grupotsk.com

Autor para correspondencia.
, Rubén Usamentiaga Fernándezb, Rubén Casado Tejedorb
a Grupo TSK, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Gijón, 33203 Gijón, Asturias, España
b Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón, Asturias, España
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De acuerdo con un reciente estudio publicado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), se estima que 1.25 millones de personas mueren como resultado de accidentes de tráfico. De todos ellos, muchos son provocados por lo que se conoce como inatención, cuyos principales factores contribuyentes son tanto la distracción como la somnolencia. En líneas generales, se calcula que la inatención ocasiona entre el 25% y el 75% de los accidentes y casi-accidentes. A causa de estas cifras y sus consecuencias se ha convertido en un campo ampliamente estudiado por la comunidad investigadora, donde diferentes estudios y soluciones han sido propuestos, pudiendo destacar los métodos basados en visión por computador como uno de los más prometedores para la detección robusta de estos eventos de inatención. El objetivo del presente artículo es el de proponer, construir y validar una arquitectura especialmente diseñada para operar en entornos vehiculares basada en el análisis de características visuales mediante el empleo de técnicas de visión por computador y aprendizaje automático para la detección tanto de la distracción como de la somnolencia en los conductores. El sistema se ha validado, en primer lugar, con bases de datos de referencia testeando los diferentes módulos que la componen. En concreto, se detecta la presencia o ausencia del conductor con una precisión del 100%, 90.56%, 88.96% por medio de un marcador ubicado en el reposacabezas del conductor, por medio del operador LBP, o por medio del operador CS-LBP, respectivamente. En lo que respecta a la validación mediante la base de datos CEW para la detección del estado de los ojos, se obtiene una precisión de 93.39% y de 91.84% utilizando una nueva aproximación basada en LBP (LBP_RO) y otra basada en el operador CS-LBP (CS-LBP_RO). Tras la realización de varios experimentos para ubicar la cámara en el lugar más adecuado, se posicionó la misma en el salpicadero, pudiendo aumentar la precisión en la detección de la región facial de un 86.88% a un 96.46%. Las pruebas en entornos reales se realizaron durante varios días recogiendo condiciones lumínicas muy diferentes durante las horas diurnas involucrando a 16 conductores, los cuales realizaron diversas actividades para reproducir síntomas de distracción y somnolencia. Dependiendo del tipo de actividad y su duración, se obtuvieron diferentes resultados. De manera general y considerando de forma conjunta todas las actividades se obtiene una tasa media de detección del 93.11%.

Palabras clave:
Detección distracción y somnolencia
Visión por computador
Percepción y reconocimiento
Aprendizaje automático
Monitorización y supervisión
Abstract

According to the most recent studies published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013, it is estimated that 1.25 million people die as a result of traffic crashes. Many of them are caused by what it is known as inattention, whose main contributing factors are both distraction and drowsiness. Overall, it is estimated that inattention causes between 25% and 75% of the crashes and near-crashes. That is why this is a thoroughly studied field by the research community, where solutions to combat distraction and drowsiness, in particular, and inattention, in general, can be classified into three main categories, and, where computer vision has clearly become a non-obtrusive effective tool for the detection of both distraction and drowsiness. The aim of this paper is to propose, build and validate an architecture based on the analysis of visual characteristics by using computer vision techniques and machine learning to detect both distraction and drowsiness in drivers. Firstly, the modules have been tested with all its components independently using several datasets. More specifically, the presence/absence of the driver is detected with an accuracy of 100%, 90.56%, 88.96% by using a marker positioned onto the headrest, the LBP operator and the CS-LBP operator, respectively. Regarding the eye closeness validation with CEW dataset, an accuracy of 93.39% and 91.84% is obtained using a new method using both LBP (LBP_RO) and CS-LBP (CS-LBP_RO). After performing several tests, the camera is positioned on the dashboard, increasing the accuracy of face detection from 86.88% to 96.46%. In connection with the tests performed in real-world settings, 16 drivers were involved performing several activities imitating different sings of sleepiness and distraction. Overall, an accuracy of 93.11%is obtained considering all activities and all drivers.

Keywords:
Distraction and drowsiness detection
Computer vision
Perception and recognition
Machine learning
Monitoring and supervision
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Referencias no citadas

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