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Inicio Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología Relación entre el estrés oxidativo mitocondrial y la velocidad del envejecimie...
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Vol. 40. Núm. 4.
Páginas 243-249 (Agosto 2005)
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Vol. 40. Núm. 4.
Páginas 243-249 (Agosto 2005)
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Relación entre el estrés oxidativo mitocondrial y la velocidad del envejecimiento
Relationship between mitochondrial oxidative stress and rate of ageing
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G. Barja
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gbarja@bio.ucm.es

Correspondencia: Dr. G. Barja. Departamento de Fisiología Animal-II. Facultad de Biología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Antonio Novais, 2. 28040 Madrid. España.
Departamento de Biología Animal-II. Fisiología Animal. Facultad de Biología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Madrid. España
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Aunque se han propuesto muchas teorías diferentes sobre las causas del envejecimiento, la teoría de los radicales libres es la que disfruta de más apoyos a su favor en la bibliografía científica. En el presente artículo se revisan los trabajos publicados sobre la relación entre la longevidad máxima de las distintas especies animales y sus valores endógenos de antioxidantes y de generación de radicales de oxígeno. La mayoría de los estudios sobre suplementación experimental con antioxidantes indican que pueden aumentar la esperanza de vida pero no cambian la longevidad máxima. Además, los antioxidantes endógenos correlacionan de forma negativa con la longevidad máxima. Sin embargo, la intensidad de producción mitocondrial de radicals de oxígeno y el daño oxidativo al ADN mitocondrial son menores en los animales longevos que en los de vida corta. Los animales longevos también muestran un menor grado de insaturación de los ácidos grasos de sus membranas tisulares que las especies de vida corta. Por otra parte, la restricción calórica, la única manipulación experimental que disminuye la velocidad del envejecimiento, también disminuye la producción mitocondrial de radicales libres y el daño oxidativo al ADN mitocondrial. Este descenso ocurre en el complejo I. Estos resultados sugieren que se han utilizado mecanismos similares para aumentar la longevidad en la restricción calórica y durante la evolución de especies animales con distinta velocidad de envejecimiento, y que dichos mecanismos incluyen un descenso en el estrés oxidativo mitocondrial.

Palabras clave:
Radicales libres
Mitocondrias
Envejecimiento
Longevidad
ADN
Abstract

Although many theories have been put forward on the causes of ageing, the explanation that has received greatest support in the scientific literature is the free radical theory. The present article reviews the studies published on the relationship between maximal longevity of the distinct animal species and their endogenous antioxidant levels and oxygen radical generation. Most studies on experimental supplementation with antioxidants indicate that they can increase life expectancy but do not change maximal longevity. Moreover, endogenous antioxidants are negatively correlated with maximal longevity. However, the intensity of mitochondrial production of oxygen radicals and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA are lower in longevous animals than in shortlived animals. Longevous animals also show a lower grade of fatty acid unsaturation in tissue membranes than short-lived species. Caloric restriction, the only experimental procedure that reduces the rate of ageing, also reduces mitochondrial production of free radicals and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA. This decrease occurs in complex I. These results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to increase longevity in caloric restriction and during the evolution of animal species with different rates of ageing and that these mechanisms include a decrease in mitochondrial oxidative stress.

Key words:
Free radicals
Mitochondria
Ageing
Longevity
DNA
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