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Inicio Endocrinología y Nutrición Regulación de la ingesta alimentaria: una perspectiva clínica
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Vol. 52. Núm. 8.
Páginas 404-430 (Octubre 2005)
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Vol. 52. Núm. 8.
Páginas 404-430 (Octubre 2005)
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Regulación de la ingesta alimentaria: una perspectiva clínica
Regulation of food intake: a clinical perspective
J. Salvadora,
Autor para correspondencia

Correspondencia: Dr. J. Salvador. Departamento de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Clínica Universitaria de Navarra. Universidad de Navarra. Avda. Pío XII, 36. 31008 Pamplona. Navarra. España.
, G. Frühbecka,b
a Departamento de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Clínica Universitaria de Navarra. Universidad de Navarra. Pamplona. Navarra. España
b Laboratorio de Investigación Metabólica. Clínica Universitaria de Navarra. Universidad de Navarra. Pamplona. Navarra. España
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Los avances experimentados en los conocimientos de la fisiología de la regulación de la ingesta alimentaria han permitido identificar un número creciente de moléculas implicadas en los circuitos de apetito-saciedad. Muchas de ellas son sintetizadas en sistemas endocrinos difusos como el tejido adiposo, el tracto gastrointestinal o el sistema nervioso central. Los mecanismos que regulan su secreción y su acción aún no son bien conocidos. No obstante, el descubrimiento de péptidos tales como la leptina, la ghrelina o la colecistocinina, entre otros, nos ha permitido profundizar en el conocimiento de la regulación de la ingesta y sus relaciones con otros sistemas homeostáticos. La emergente neuroendocrinología del apetito y la saciedad nos está suministrando nuevas claves para comprender los mecanismos implicados en la fisiopatología de la obesidad y de los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario. El estudio de las variaciones de las señales de apetito y saciedad que tienen lugar con la pérdida ponderal inducida por la cirugía bariátrica puede conducir al desarrollo de abordajes farmacológicos que permitan reemplazar el tratamiento quirúrgico en los casos de obesidad extrema. Las conexiones recientemente puestas de manifiesto entre la ingesta y el sueño forman parte de otra área de gran interés. Estos conocimientos están abriendo nuevas perspectivas terapéuticas mediante el diseño de fármacos agonistas o antagonistas de los diferentes sistemas funcionales, que en un futuro próximo crearán nuevas expectativas en el control de unas enfermedades de gran prevalencia e impacto sanitario.

Palabras clave:
Ingesta alimentaria
Neuropéptido Y

The enormous advances in the field of food intake regulation have led to the identification of a growing number of molecules involved in appetite-satiety circuits. Many of these molecules are synthesized in diffuse endocrine systems such as the adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. The exact mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and secretion are not yet well known. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the discovery of peptides such as leptin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin, among others, greater knowledge is being gained on the pathophysiology of food intake and its relationships with other homeostatic systems. Thus, the neuroendocrinology of food intake is providing us with new keys for understanding the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and eating disorders. Study of the changes in appetite and satiety signals associated with weight loss induced by bariatric surgery may culminate in the design of new therapeutic approaches to substitute surgical treatment in patients with morbid obesity. The recent associations demonstrated between eating and sleeping represent other area of great interest. All this information is opening up new therapeutic perspectives directed at the development of agonist and antagonist drugs, which may prove highly useful in the treatment of highly prevalent diseases with a devastating impact on public health.

Key words:
Food intake
Neuropeptide Y
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