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Inicio Endocrinología y Nutrición Factores predisponentes al desarrollo de diabetes tipo 2 y riesgo cardiovascular...
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Vol. 51. Núm. 5.
Páginas 325-335 (Mayo 2004)
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Vol. 51. Núm. 5.
Páginas 325-335 (Mayo 2004)
DOI: 10.1016/S1575-0922(04)74623-9
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Factores predisponentes al desarrollo de diabetes tipo 2 y riesgo cardiovascular en la infancia. Obesidad, insulinorresistencia, dislipemia e hipertensión: síndrome dismetabólico
Predisposing factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk in childhood. obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension: dysmetabolic syndrome
R. Barrio
Autor para correspondencia

Correspondencia: Dra. R. Barrio. Unidad de Diabetes Pediátrica. Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal. Universidad de Alcalá Henares. Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, km 9,100. 28034 Madrid. España.
, M. Alonso, M. López-Capapé, E. Colino, C. Mustieles
Unidad de Endocrinología y Diabetes Pediátrica. Hospital Ramón y Cajal. Universidad de Alcalá. Madrid. España
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La dislipemia, hipertensión, insulinorresistencia, alteración hidrocarbonada y obesidad son potentes factores de riesgo de la enfermedad cardiovascular en el adulto. Esta constelación de situaciones patológicas se conoce como síndrome dismetabólico. La obesidad tiene un papel central en este síndrome. Aunque el impacto de la enfermedad cardiovascular y la muerte se ve en el adulto, el proceso patológico y los factores de riesgo asociados comienzan durante la infancia. Se han encontrado componentes del síndrome dismetabólico en el niño y en el adolescente. La obesidad en estas edades también se asocia con insulinorresistencia, junto a anomalías lipídicas y alteración de la presión arterial en el adulto joven. La diabetes tipo 2 se ha vuelto muy prevalente entre los adolescentes obesos, y el mejor predictor de la alteración de la tolerancia a la glucosa es la evidencia de insulinorresistencia.

Debido al gran incremento de la incidencia de obesidad en la edad pediátrica, sobre todo en algunos países y en ciertas etnias, tiene una gran importancia conocer y controlar estos factores de riesgo en las edades tempranas de la vida. Hay que prevenir e intervenir precozmente en los niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad, sobre todo en los que pertenecen a los grupos de riesgo.

Palabras clave:
Factores de riesgo cardiovascular

Dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, and obesity are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults. This constellation of pathological situations is known as dysmetabolic syndrome. Obesity plays a central role in this syndrome. Although the impact of cardiovascular disease and death is evident in adults, the pathological process and associated risk factors begin during childhood. Components of metabolic disease have been found in children and adolescents. Obesity at these ages is also associated with insulin resistance, together with lipid abnormalities and increased blood pressure in young adults. Type 2 diabetes has become highly prevalent among obese adolescents and insulin resistance is the best predictor of alterations in glucose tolerance.

Because of the large increase in the incidence of obesity in the pediatric age group, especially in certain countries and ethnic groups, knowledge and control of these risk factors at a young age are essential. Early prevention and intervention in overweight and obese children and adolescents, especially in those who belong to risk groups, is crucial.

Key words:
Cardiovascular risk factors
Insulin resistance
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