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Vol. 22. Issue 1.
Pages 47-51 (January - April 2021)
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Vol. 22. Issue 1.
Pages 47-51 (January - April 2021)
Review article
DOI: 10.1016/j.vacune.2021.01.005
Two B or not two B, that is the question. Statements in favor of the quadrivalent influenza vaccine
Incluir los dos linajes B o no incluirlos, esa es la cuestión. Declaraciones a favor de la vacuna cuadrivalente frente a la gripe
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M. Van Ranst
Rega Institute, Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Herestraat 49 – PO box 1040, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Table 1. Overview of available quadrivalent influenza vaccines in the EU/EEA for the 2019/20 season.40
Table 2. Key points for the promotion of the quadrivalent vaccine.
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Abstract

Each year, over 1 billion people worldwide are affected by the influenza virus. Vaccination is the most effective method of protection against this disease. Although the WHO has included a quadrivalent influenza vaccine formulation in its official recommendations since 2013–2014, it is not yet widely used. The impact of influenza B viruses is underestimated. Nevertheless, they are responsible for 20–25% of influenza infections worldwide, causing similar clinical symptoms to influenza A that particularly affect the pediatric population. There is no way to predict which B virus lineage will be more prevalent each season. Consequently, the trivalent vaccine composition often fails to include the most prevalent B lineage in that season, and the vaccinated population is therefore not well protected against type B influenza. The quadrivalent influenza vaccine protects against four strains of influenza virus and will represent an opportunity to reduce the influenza burden.

Keywords:
Influenza
Quadrivalent vaccine
Tetravalent vaccine
Influenza B
Seasonal influenza
Resumen

Cada año, más de 1.000 millones de personas a nivel mundial se ven afectadas por la gripe estacional. La manera más efectiva de prevenirla es mediante la vacunación anual. Desde la temporada 2013-2014, la OMS incluye en sus recomendaciones una formulación de vacuna cuadrivalente (que incluye los dos subtipos de virus tipo A y ambos linajes de virus B) e indica el linaje de virus B que se debe incluir en la vacuna trivalente. Sin embargo, el uso de la vacuna cuadrivalente en España sigue siendo minoritario. El efecto patogénico del virus tipo B de la gripe se ha subestimado durante mucho tiempo. No obstante, es responsable de entre un 20 y un 25% de los casos de gripe global, con un cuadro clínico similar al que produce el virus tipo A y afectando especialmente a la población pediátrica. La presencia de uno u otro linaje de gripe B es imprevisible cada temporada, lo que provoca que a menudo el linaje de la cepa incluida en la vacuna trivalente no concuerde con el del virus B más prevalente, dejando a la población vacunada expuesta a los efectos de la gripe B. El uso de la vacuna cuadrivalente de forma habitual supondría una medida efectiva para ampliar el espectro de la vacuna y asegurar la protección de más personas contra la gripe estacional.

Palabras clave:
Gripe
Vacuna cuadrivalente
Vacuna tetravalente
Gripe B
Gripe estacional

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