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Inicio Vacunas Vigilancia virológica de la gripe (2002–2003)
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Vol. 4. Issue 4.
Pages 119-126 (October 2003)
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Vol. 4. Issue 4.
Pages 119-126 (October 2003)
Vigilancia virológica de la gripe (2002–2003)
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T. Pumarolaa,*, A. Domínguezb, M.A. Marcosa, A. Martínezb, C. Muñoza, A. Cañasa, M. Ruiza, M.T. Jiméneza, L. Sallerasb, Grupo de Trabajo de Vigilancia de la Gripe en Cataluña
a Servicio de Microbiología. Hospital Clínic. Barcelona
b Direcció General de Salut Pública. Barcelona. España
Article information
RESUMEN
Fundamento

Las características biológicas que poseen los virus de la gripe, en particular el del tipo A, que presenta cambios antigé-nicos constantes, condicionan que gran parte de la población sea susceptible a la gripe, por lo que se presentan anualmente epidemias de intensidad variable. En este estudio se presentan los resultados de un programa de vigilancia virológica, cuyo objetivo fue detectar precozmente el inicio de la epidemia e identificar los virus circulantes.

Métodos

Desde noviembre de 2002 a abril de 2003, 24 equipos de atención primaria, distribuidos por las provincias de Gerona, Barcelona y Tarragona, recogieron muestras del exudado nasal y faríngeo de pacientes que presentaban síndrome gripal o infección respiratoria aguda. Se practicó inmunofluorescencia, cultivo celular y RT-PCR de las muestras obtenidas. Se investigó la presencia de los virus de la gripe A, B (VGA y VGB), virus respiratorio sincitial (VRS), virus parainfluenza 1, 2 y 3 (VP1, VP2, VP3) y adenovirus (ADV).

Resultados

Se estudiaron 367 muestras, de las que 120 (33%) fueron positivas: 40 a VGA, 47 a VGB, 14 a VRS y 19 a ADV. La fiebre, la tos y el inicio brusco se presentaron de forma más frecuente en los pacientes en los que se detectó VGA o VGB, siendo las diferencias no significativas respecto al grupo en que no se detectaron virus de la gripe. No se observaron diferencias significativas en las manifestaciones clínicas entre los infectados por el VGA o el VGB, ni entre niños y adultos

Conclusión

Durante las semanas que ha durado la epidemia gripal se ha producido un incremento muy notable en el porcentaje de positividad de las muestras para los virus de la gripe A y B. Este hecho ha resultado de gran utilidad para la detección precoz y el seguimiento adecuado de la epidemia.

Palabras clave:
Virus de la gripe
Vigilancia virológica
Atención extrahospitalaria
SUMMARY
Background

The biological characteristics of the influenza virus, particularly type A, with its constant antigenic changes, means that a high proportion of the general population is subject to the disease, causing annual epidemics of varying intensity. This study presents the results of a virological surveillance programme whose objective was the early detection of the beginning of the epidemic and the identification of the circulating viruses.

Methods

Nasal and pharyngeal swabs from patients suffering fron influenza like syndrome or acute respiratory infection were collected between November 2002 and April 2003 by 24 primary health care teams from the provinces of Gerona, Barcelona and Tarragona (Catalonia. Spain). The samples were subjected to im-munofluorescence, inoculation into cellular cultures and RT-PCR. The presence of the influenza virus types A (IAV) and B (IBV), the respiratoty syncytial virus (RSV), the parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3 (PV1, PV2, PV3) and the adenovirus (ADV) was investigated.

Results

In total, 367 samples were studied, of wich 120 (33%) were positive: 40 for IAV, 47 for IBV, 14 for RSV, and 19 for ADV.

Fever, cough and sudden onset were more frequent in patients from whom IAV or IBV were detected than in those in wich it was not, although the differences were not statistically significant. Clinical differences between IAV anb IBV infected patients and between children and adults were not observed.

Conclusion

During the influenza epidemic, a substancial increase in the percentage of positivity for IAV and IBV was noted in the samples taken. This fact has been of great use in the early detection and follow up of the influenza epidemic.

Key Words:
Influenza virus
Virological surveillance
Extrahospitalary care

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