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Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)
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Vol. 65. Issue 1.
Pages 5-12 (January 2018)
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Vol. 65. Issue 1.
Pages 5-12 (January 2018)
Original article
Physical activity and frailty as indicators of cardiorespiratory reserve and predictors of surgical prognosis: General and digestive surgery population characterization
Actividad física y fragilidad como indicadores de reserva cardiorrespiratoria y predictores del pronóstico quirúrgico: caracterización de la población quirúrgica en cirugía general y digestiva
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F. Danaa,
Corresponding author
fjdana@clinic.cat

Corresponding author.
, D. Capitána, M. Ubréb, A. Hervásc, R. Riscob, G. Martínez-Pallíb,d
a Área Quirúrgica, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
b Servicio de Anestesiología y Reanimación, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
c Institut Clínic de Malalties Digestives, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
d Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Clinical and demographic characteristics.
Table 2. Level of physical activity, functional reserve, frailty and emotional state.
Table 3. Incidence of frailty according to the Canadian fragility scale.
Table 4. Patient characteristics according to functional reserve.
Table 5. Survey on joining a pre-habilitation programme.
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Abstract
Introduction

Frailty and low physical activity and cardiorespiratory reserve are related to higher perioperative morbimortality. The crucial step in improving the prognosis is to implement specific measures to optimise these aspects. It is critical to know the magnitude of the problem in order to implement preoperative optimisation programmes.

Objective

To characterise surgical population in a university hospital.

Methods

All patients undergoing preoperative evaluation for abdominal surgery with admission were prospectively included during a 3-month period. Level of physical activity, functional capacity, frailty and emotional state were assessed using score tests. Additionally, physical condition was evaluated using 5 Times Sit-to-Stand Test. Demographic, clinical and surgical data were collected.

Results

One hundred and forty patients were included (60±15yr-old, 56% male, 25% ASA III or IV). Forty-nine percent of patients were proposed for oncologic surgery and 13% of which had received neoadjuvant treatment. Seventy percent of patients presented a low functional capacity and were sedentary. Eighteen percent of patients were considered frail and more than 50% completed the 5 Times Sit-to-Stand Test at a higher time than the reference values adjusted to age and sex. Advanced age, ASA III/IV, sedentarism, frailty and a high level of anxiety and depression were related to a lower functional capacity.

Conclusions

The surgical population of our area has a low functional reserve and a high index of sedentary lifestyle and frailty, predictors of postoperative morbidity. It is mandatory to implement preoperative measures to identify population at risk and prehabilitation programmes, considered highly promising preventive interventions towards improving surgical outcome.

Keywords:
Physical activity
Functional capacity
Frailty
Surgical outcome
Postoperative complications
Prehabilitation
Resumen
Introducción

Una baja reserva cardiorrespiratoria, un bajo nivel de actividad física y la fragilidad se relacionan con una mayor morbimortalidad perioperatoria. Implementar medidas para optimizar estos aspectos es clave para mejorar el pronóstico. Es fundamental conocer la magnitud del problema para dimensionar los programas de optimización preoperatoria.

Objetivo

Caracterizar la población quirúrgica de un hospital universitario de nivel terciario.

Métodos

Se incluyeron prospectivamente todos los pacientes sometidos a evaluación preoperatoria para cirugía digestiva con ingreso durante 3 meses. Se evaluó el nivel de actividad física, la capacidad funcional, la fragilidad y el estado emocional, y se realizó un test de medición del estado físico (5 Times Sit-to-Stand Test). Se recogieron datos demográficos, clínicos y relacionados con la cirugía.

Resultados

Se incluyeron 140 pacientes (60±15 años, 56% varones, 25% ASA III o IV). El 49% estaban propuestos para cirugía oncológica y un 13% había recibido neoadyuvancia. El 70% de los pacientes presentaban una capacidad funcional reducida y eran sedentarios. Un 18% fueron considerados frágiles y más de un 50% completaron el 5 Times Sit-to-Stand Test en un tiempo superior a los valores de referencia. La edad avanzada, el ASA III/IV, el sedentarismo, la fragilidad y un nivel de ansiedad/depresión elevado se relacionaron con una menor capacidad funcional.

Conclusiones

La población quirúrgica de nuestro entorno tiene una baja reserva funcional y un elevado índice de sedentarismo y fragilidad, factores asociados a un peor pronóstico quirúrgico. Urge implementar medidas preoperatorias para identificar la población de riesgo y programas de prehabilitación considerados estrategias de optimización preoperatoria con gran potencial.

Palabras clave:
Actividad física
Capacidad funcional
Fragilidad
Pronóstico quirúrgico
Complicaciones postoperatorias
Prehabilitación

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