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DOI: 10.1016/j.rcreue.2020.08.002
Temporal artery Doppler ultrasound in patients with giant cell arteritis: State of the art and systematic review of the literature
Ultrasonido Doppler de arterias temporales en pacientes con arteritis de células gigantes: estado del arte y revisión sistemática de la literatura
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Tomás Urrego-Callejasa,b,
Corresponding author
t.urregoc@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Daniel Jaramillo-Arroyavea,c,d,e, Adriana-Lucía Vanegas-Garcíaa,e,f, Carlos Horacio Muñoz-Vahosa,c,e,f, Maribel Plaza Tenoriof
a Systemic Vasculitis Study Group, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
b Cellular immunology and Immunogenetics Group, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
c University IPS, Health Services, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
d Epidemiology and Biostatistics Group, Faculty of Medicine, CES University, Medellín, Colombia
e Group of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
f San Vicente Hospital Foundation, Medellín, Colombia
Received 02 July 2020. Accepted 20 August 2020
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Table 1. Data extraction on the performance of temporal arteries ultrasound.
Table 2. False positives of the halo sign in Doppler ultrasound.
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Abstract

Giant cell arteritis is a vasculitis that predominantly affects large caliber vessels, and usually appears in people over 50 years-old. Its clinical presentation includes headache, hearing impairment, or polymyalgia rheumatica-like symptoms. In its most severe form, it can cause uni- or bilateral vision loss secondary to arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Currently, the gold standard for its diagnosis is the temporal artery biopsy, a procedure that is not harmless and may have complications such as infection, nerve injury, bleeding, among others. Among non-invasive diagnostic methods, the ultrasound and temporal artery Doppler have gained a predominant role in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, as it is a benign test with no adverse effects. Through strategies such as “fast-track” clinics, supported by this diagnostic method, a reduction has been achieved in ischemic complications of the disease.

Keywords:
Ultrasound
Doppler
Vasculitis
Giant cell arteritis
Resumen

La arteritis de células gigantes es una vasculitis que afecta de manera predominante a vasos de gran calibre y aparece en personas mayores de 50 años. Su presentación clínica incluye cefalea, alteraciones auditivas o síntomas similares a polimialgia reumática. En su forma más grave puede causar pérdida de visión uni o bilateral, secundaria a neuropatía óptica isquémica de tipo arterítico. En la actualidad, el estándar de referencia para su diagnóstico es la biopsia de arterias temporales, procedimiento que no es inocuo y que puede tener como complicaciones infección, lesión nerviosa o sangrado, entre otras. Entre las técnicas no invasivas de diagnóstico, el ultrasonido y el Doppler de arterias temporales han tomado un rol cada vez más importante en el diagnóstico de esta patología, dado que son pruebas benignas, con nulos efectos adversos, y a través de estrategias como las clínicas fast-track apoyadas en este método diagnóstico se ha logrado la reducción de complicaciones isquémicas de la enfermedad.

Palabras clave:
Ultrasonido
Doppler
Ecografía
Vasculitis
Arteritis de células gigantes

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