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Inicio Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría (English Edition) Perinatal depressive symptoms: Prevalence and associated psychosocial factors
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Vol. 48. Issue 3.
Pages 166-173 (July - September 2019)
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Vol. 48. Issue 3.
Pages 166-173 (July - September 2019)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.rcpeng.2017.09.011
Perinatal depressive symptoms: Prevalence and associated psychosocial factors
Síntomas depresivos perinatales: prevalencia y factores psicosociales asociados
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Silvia L. Gaviria, Marle Duque
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mduquegiraldo@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Juliana Vergel, Diana Restrepo
Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia
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Tables (4)
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the study population, by scores on the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale.
Table 2. Prevalence of negative life events experienced by the study population in the past 12 months.
Table 3. Significant associations between perinatal depression symptoms and other study variables.
Table 4. Factors associated with perinatal depression symptoms: bivariate model versus logistic regression model.
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Abstract

Perinatal depression is a major depression episode that starts during pregnancy and the postpartum period; and is an important cause of health risks in women and infants. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with information from the records of 112 pregnant women or in the immediate postpartum period who were surveyed to determine the possible association between perinatal depressive symptoms and psychosocial factors occurring in the last year. The prevalence of clinically significant perinatal depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh scale was of 22.36%. The logistic regression model found association between clinically significant perinatal depressive symptoms (score on the Edinburgh scale12 and the following psychosocial factors: end of the couple's relationship (OR=6.26; 95% CI, 1.91–20.49), severe economic problems (OR=6.61; 95% CI, 1.86–23.45), and the death of a family member (OR=3.79; 95% CI, 1.12–12.74). In this study, one in four women had broken up with their partner and had severe economic problems during pregnancy, also one of ten had suffered the death of a loved one in the past year. These psychosocial factors were strongly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms with clinical importance. These finding offer the opportunity to consider psychosocial factors as a source of maternal stress that could be easily identified in the prenatal controls that pregnant women receive to identify women at risk of experiencing depressive symptoms in the perinatal period, which will enable appropriate treatment to be given to those who need it.

Keywords:
Pregnancy
Postpartum
Perinatal
Risk factors
Psychosocial
Depression
Resumen

La depresión perinatal es el episodio depresivo mayor que se inicia durante el embarazo o en las primeras 4 semanas posparto y genera importantes riesgos de salud para la madre y para el bebé. Se realiza un estudio descriptivo transversal a partir de 112 registros de mujeres embarazadas o en el posparto inmediato, a quienes se aplicó la escala de Edimburgo para depresión perinatal y se exploró la posible asociación con factores de riesgo psicosocial ocurridos en el último año. La prevalencia de síntomas depresivos perinatales de importancia clínica usando la escala de Edimburgo fue del 22,36%. El modelo de regresión logística encontró asociación entre síntomas depresivos perinatales clínicamente significativos (escala de Edimburgo ≥ 12) y los siguientes factores psicosociales: finalización de la relación de pareja (OR=6,26; IC95%, 1,91-20,49), dificultades económicas graves (OR=6,61; IC95%, 1,86-23,45) y muerte de un familiar (OR=3,79; IC95%, 1,12-12,74). En este estudio, 1 de cada 4 mujeres había roto con la pareja y tenía problemas económicos graves durante la gestación; además, 1 de cada 10 había sufrido la muerte de un ser querido en el último año. Estos hallazgos ofrecen la oportunidad de identificar precozmente algunos eventos psicosociales negativos como factores de riesgo de depresión perinatal, lo que permitiría dar acompañamiento y tratamiento oportuno a quienes lo requieran.

Palabras clave:
Embarazo
Posparto
Perinatal
Factores de riesgo
Psicosocial
Depresión

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