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Inicio Radiología (English Edition) Ultrasonography in infectious and neoplastic diseases of the bowel and peritoneu...
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Vol. 63. Issue 3.
Pages 270-290 (May - June 2021)
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Vol. 63. Issue 3.
Pages 270-290 (May - June 2021)
Serie: Ultrasound of the gastrointestinal tract
DOI: 10.1016/j.rxeng.2020.12.004
Ultrasonography in infectious and neoplastic diseases of the bowel and peritoneum
Ecografía de la patología infecciosa y tumoral del intestino y el peritoneo
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M.Á. Corral de la Callea,
Corresponding author
migcorral@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, J. Encinas de la Iglesiab
a Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Complejo Asistencial de Ávila, Ávila, Spain
b Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Complejo Asistencial de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Summary of gastrointestinal tract infections.
Table 2. Differential diagnosis of infectious enterocolitis. Other causes of diffuse bowel involvement.
Table 3. Summary of the features of the four main types of primary gastrointestinal malignant neoplasms.
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Additional material (5)
Abstract

Ultrasonography is not the most cited imaging technique for the evaluation of infectious and neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the peritoneum, but it is often the initial technique used in the initial workup for nonspecific clinical syndromes. Despite its limitations, ultrasonography’s strengths enable it to provide meaningful diagnostic information.

To discuss the most important ultrasonographic, clinical, and epidemiological findings for infectious disease, we follow a topographical approach: stomach (Anisakis), proximal small bowel (Giardia lamblia, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, and Cryptosporidium), distal small bowel (Yersinia, Salmonella, and Campylobacter), terminal ileum and cecum (tuberculosis), right colon (Entamoeba histolytica), left colon (Shigella), sigmoid colon and rectum, pancolitis (Clostridium difficile, Cytomegalovirus, and Escherichia coli), and peritoneum.

To discuss the ultrasonographic and clinical findings of the most common neoplastic diseases, we follow a nosological approach: polyploid lesions as precursors of tumors, carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, hematological tumors, mesenchymal tumors, and metastases. We briefly discuss tumors of the peritoneum and the use of ultrasonography to guide percutaneous biopsy procedures.

Keywords:
Ultrasonography
Interventional ultrasonography
Gastroenteritis
Enterocolitis
Peritonitis
Gastrointestinal tumors
GIST
Gastrointestinal tract cancer
Neuroendocrine tumors
Peritoneal tumors
Resumen

La ecografía no es la técnica de imagen más citada para la valoración de la patología infecciosa y tumoral del tubo digestivo y el peritoneo, pero a menudo es la inicialmente empleada ante cuadros inespecíficos. Aunque no exenta de limitaciones, presenta fortalezas que pueden permitirle aportar información diagnóstica significativa. Discutimos los datos ecográficos, clínicos y epidemiológicos más relevantes en la patología infecciosa, siguiendo un abordaje topográfico: estómago (Anisakis), intestino delgado proximal (Giardia lamblia, Strongyloides stercolaris, Complejo Mycobacterium-avium-intracelulare y Criptosporidium), intestino delgado distal (Yersinia, Salmonella, Campylobacter) íleon terminal y ciego (tuberculosis), colon derecho (Entamoeba histolytica), colon izquierdo (Shigella), recto-sigma, pancolitis (Clostridium difficile, Citomegalovirus, Escherichia coli) y peritoneo. Abordamos los hallazgos ecográficos y clínicos de la patología neoplásica más frecuente con un patrón nosológico: lesiones polipoideas como precursoras de neoplasias, carcinomas, tumores neuroendocrinos, hematológicos, mesenquimales y metástasis. Discutimos brevemente la patología tumoral del peritoneo y la ecografía como guía de biopsia percutánea.

Palabras clave:
Ecografía
Ecografía intervencionista
Gastroenteritis
Enterocolitis
Peritonitis
Tumores gastrointestinales
Tumores del estroma gastrointestinal
Cáncer del tracto gastrointestinal
Tumores neuroendocrinos
Tumores peritoneales

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