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Vol. 64. Issue 5.
Pages 473-483 (September - October 2022)
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Vol. 64. Issue 5.
Pages 473-483 (September - October 2022)
Article from a resident
Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus: Clinical and imaging findings associated with a re-emerging pathogen
Enfermedad neuroinvasiva por el virus del Nilo Occidental: características clínicas y en neuroimagen de un patógeno reemergente
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C. Moreno-Reina
Corresponding author
morenoreinacristina@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, M. Martínez-Moya, P. Piñero-González de la Peña, P. Caro-Domínguez
Unidad de Radiodiagnóstico, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain
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Abstract

The West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus than can infect human beings and cause severe neuroinvasive disease. Taking the outbreak that occurred in Spain in 2020 as a reference, this article reviews the clinical and imaging findings for neuroinvasive disease due to WNV. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging (CT and MRI) variables for 30 patients with WNV infection diagnosed at our center. The main clinical findings were fever, headache, and altered levels of consciousness. Neuroimaging studies, especially MRI, are very useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. The most common imaging findings were foci of increased signal intensity in the thalamus and brainstem in T2-weighted sequences; we illustrate these findings in cases from our hospital.

Keywords:
West Nile virus
Encephalitis
Computed tomography
Magnetic resonance imaging
Resumen

El virus del Nilo Occidental es un arbovirus que puede infectar al ser humano y causar una enfermedad neuroinvasiva grave. Tomando como referencia el brote que tuvo lugar en España en 2020, se ha realizado una revisión clínica y de neuroimagen de dicha patología. Para ello, se han recogido datos demográficos, clínicos, analíticos y pruebas de imagen (tomografía computarizada y resonancia magnética) de 30 pacientes diagnosticados de infección por virus del Nilo Occidental en nuestro centro. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron fiebre, cefalea y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Los estudios de neuroimagen, especialmente la resonancia, son de gran importancia para el diagnóstico y seguimiento. Los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron focos de aumento de señal en T2 en el tálamo y tronco del encéfalo, que ilustramos en esta revisión con casos de nuestro centro hospitalario.

Palabras clave:
Virus del Nilo Occidental
Encefalitis
Tomografía computarizada
Resonancia magnética

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