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Vol. 55. Issue 6.
Pages 483-498 (November - December 2013)
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Vol. 55. Issue 6.
Pages 483-498 (November - December 2013)
Update in radiology
Multidetector computed tomography in life-threatening hemoptysis
La tomografía computarizada multidetector en la hemoptisis amenazante
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C. Spinu??
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cspinu@tauli.cat

Corresponding author.
, E. Castañer, X. Gallardo, M. Andreu, A. Alguersuari
UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí-UAB, Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Spain
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Table 1. Causes of life-threatening hemoptysis.
Abstract

Life-threatening hemoptysis is a severe condition that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. One of the treatments of choice is embolization. The initial assessment aims to locate the origin and cause of bleeding. The technological advance of the development of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has changed the management of patients with life-threatening hemoptysis. MDCT angiography makes it possible to evaluate the cause of bleeding and locate the vessels involved both rapidly and noninvasively; it is particularly useful for detecting ectopic bronchial arteries, nonbronchial systemic arteries, and pulmonary pseudoaneurysms. Performing MDCT angiography systematically before embolization enables better treatment planning. In this article, we review the pathophysiology and causes of life-threatening hemoptysis (including cryptogenic hemoptysis) and the MDCT angiography technique, and we review how to systematically evaluate the images (lung parenchyma, airways, and vascular structures).

Keywords:
Hemoptysis
Multidetector computed tomography
Bronchial arteries
Pulmonary artery
Resumen

La hemoptisis amenazante es una situación grave que precisa de un diagnóstico y tratamiento rápidos. Uno de los tratamientos de elección es la embolización. La evaluación inicial se dirige a localizar el origen y la causa del sangrado. El avance tecnológico de la TC multidetector (TCMD) ha supuesto un cambio en el manejo de estos pacientes. La angio-TCMD permite evaluar la causa rápida e incruentamente, y localizar los vasos implicados; es particularmente útil para detectar arterias bronquiales ectópicas, arterias sistémicas no bronquiales o seudoaneurismas pulmonares. Hacer sistemáticamente una angio-TCMD antes de la embolización permite planificar mejor el tratamiento. En este artículo revisamos la fisiopatología y las causas de la hemoptisis amenazante (incluyendo la hemoptisis criptogenética), la técnica del estudio de la angio-TCMD y describimos cómo evaluar sistemáticamente las imágenes (parénquima pulmonar, vía aérea y estructuras vasculares).

Palabras clave:
Hemoptisis
Tomografía computarizada multidetector
Arterias bronquiales
Arteria pulmonar

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