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Inicio Radiología (English Edition) Adverse events of targeted anticancer therapies: What radiologists need to know
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Vol. 62. Issue 3.
Pages 229-242 (May - June 2020)
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Vol. 62. Issue 3.
Pages 229-242 (May - June 2020)
Resident article
Adverse events of targeted anticancer therapies: What radiologists need to know
Efectos adversos de las terapias dirigidas contra el cáncer: lo que el radiólogo debe saber
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P. López Salaa,
Corresponding author
paullopezsala@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, N. Alberdi Aldasoroa, G. Unzué García-Falcesb
a Residente del servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
b FEA del Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
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Table 1. Summary of the main targeted cancer therapies.
Table 2. Summary of the main adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). For some of the adverse effects, the type of ICI most likely to cause them is also shown.
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Abstract

The treatment of cancer has improved drastically in recent decades. Better understanding of tumour biology has enabled the development of new treatments, called targeted therapy. These drugs target specific signalling pathways that are necessary for the development of cancer. Immunotherapy is even more novel. These new agents can be classified into different groups, mainly according to their mechanism of action: VEGF inhibitors or anti-angiogenic agents, EGFR inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, CTLA-4 inhibitors, or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, etc.

All these new treatments are accompanied by new adverse effects that radiologists need to know. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of targeted therapies and knowing their adverse effects are vital to imaging assessment and ensuring appropriate treatment.

Keywords:
Oncologic imaging
Targeted molecular therapy
Immunotherapy
Adverse events
Resumen

El tratamiento del cáncer ha avanzado drásticamente en las últimas décadas. Un mayor conocimiento de la biología tumoral ha propiciado el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos anticancerígenos, llamados “terapias dirigidas”. Estos fármacos tienen como diana vías de señalización específicas necesarias para el desarrollo del cáncer. Más novedosa es aún la inmunoterapia. Estos nuevos agentes se pueden clasificar en diferentes grupos, principalmente según su mecanismo de acción: inhibidores de VEGF o antiangiogénicos, inhibidores de EGFR, inhibidores de mTOR, inhibidores de CTLA-4, inhibidores de PD-1/PD-L1, etc.

Todas estas nuevas terapias traen consigo nuevos efectos adversos que el radiólogo debe conocer. Entender el mecanismo molecular de las terapias dirigidas y reconocer sus efectos adversos es esencial para una correcta valoración radiológica y para proporcionar un tratamiento apropiado.

Palabras clave:
Imagen en oncología
Terapia molecular dirigida
Inmunoterapia
Eventos adversos

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