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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) The impact of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular disease
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Vol. 157. Issue 1.
Pages 22-32 (July 2021)
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Vol. 157. Issue 1.
Pages 22-32 (July 2021)
Review
The impact of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular disease
Impacto de la vacunación antigripal sobre la enfermedad cardiovascular
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Alberto Pérez-Rubioa,
Corresponding author
Albertoprz@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, J. Alberto San Románb, José María Eiros Bouzac
a Dirección Médica, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain
b Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain
c Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Valladolid, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Characteristics of the selected observational studies in patients without cardiovascular disease.
Table 2. Characteristics of the selected observational studies in patients with previously identified cardiovascular disease.
Table 3. Characteristics and summary of results presented in the selected meta-analyses.
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Abstract

Influenza infection has been identified as a triggering or exacerbating factor for cardiovascular events. To analyse the effect of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular disease, a systematic search of studies published between 2009–2019 was conducted. All the studies that evaluated the effect of vaccination against influenza on cardiovascular events and their outcome were considered. Finally, 30 of the 1147 identified studies were included. These studies show a protective effect of the influenza vaccine on the development of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure) and on the worsening of these conditions. Furthermore, the data showed that vaccinated patients have a lower risk of death from cardiovascular pathologies. Influenza vaccination is therefore an effective measure in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases both in patients with established cardiovascular disease and in the population without previous coronary pathology.

Keywords:
Flu
Cardiovascular disease
Influenza vaccine
Cardiovascular prevention.
Resumen

La gripe se ha identificado como un factor desencadenante o agravante de los eventos cardiovasculares. Con el objetivo analizar el efecto de la vacunación antigripal en la enfermedad cardiovascular se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de estudios publicados entre 2009 y 2019. Se consideraron todos los trabajos que evaluaron el efecto de la vacunación frente a la gripe sobre eventos cardiovasculares y su evolución. Finalmente se incluyeron 30 de los 1.147 estudios identificados. Estos trabajos ponen de manifiesto el efecto protector de la vacuna antigripal tanto en el desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares (infarto de miocardio, ictus, fibrilación auricular e insuficiencia cardíaca) como en el empeoramiento de estos procesos. Además, se demuestra que los pacientes vacunados presentan un menor riesgo de muerte por enfermedades cardiovasculares. La vacunación antigripal es, pues, una medida efectiva en la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares tanto en personas con enfermedad cardiovascular establecida como en aquellas sin patología previa.

Palabras clave:
Gripe
Enfermedad cardiovascular
Vacuna de la gripe
Prevención cardiovascular

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