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Vol. 157. Issue 10.
Pages 464-472 (November 2021)
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Vol. 157. Issue 10.
Pages 464-472 (November 2021)
Original article
Serum cytokines in ANCA-associated vasculitis: Correlation with disease-related clinical and laboratory findings
Citocinas séricas en la vasculitis asociada a ANCA: correlación con los hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio relacionados con la enfermedad
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Joanna Krajewska Wojciechowskaa,
Corresponding author
, Wojciech Krajewskib, Katarzyna Kościelska-Kasprzakc, Tomasz Zatońskia
a Department and Clinic of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University in Wroclaw, Poland
b Department and Clinic of Urology and Urological Oncology, Medical University in Wroclaw, Poland
c Department and Clinic of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine, Medical University in Wroclaw, Poland
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Patients’ laboratory characteristics.
Table 2. Patients’ clinical characteristics.
Table 3. Significant positive associations between increased IL-10 and BAFF, and disease-related abnormalities in GPA.
Table 4. Significant positive associations between increased IL-12 and IL-10, and disease-related abnormalities in MPA.
Table 5. Correlations between levels of certain cytokines and BAFF, and disease-related variables in GPA and MPA.
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Abstract
Background

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a systemic, autoimmune disease. Cytokine dysregulation during active disease and clinical remission, reflects significant immunological activity in various disease stages, and might be responsible for the potential relapse of ANCA-vasculitis.

Objectives

This study aimed to screen serological profiles in active granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and to determine their associations with clinical characteristics.

Materials and methods

Serum IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, B cell activating factor (BAFF) concentrations were determined by Quantikine HS ELISA in 71 patients, 47 with GPA and 24 with MPA, and compared with 16 healthy controls. Subsequently, the correlations between serum IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, BAFF levels, and both laboratory and clinical abnormalities were investigated.

Results

BAFF levels were significantly higher in GPA than MPA, and healthy controls. IL-10 and BAFF levels were elevated in GPA patients with pulmonary involvement. Higher BAFF levels might reflect severe GPA. IL-10 and IL-12 levels were higher in MPA than GPA. In MPA, IL-10 levels were highest in patients with short disease duration, and young individuals. IL-12 correlated positively with BVAS and was elevated in patients with cardiovascular involvement and nasal S. aureus carriers.

Conclusions

In MPA, IL-12 correlates positively with disease activity, and is significantly increased in patients with cardiovascular involvement and nasal S. aureus carriers. Increased IL-10 is observed in young MPA patients and in those with short MPA duration. Elevated BAFF and IL-10 levels are associated with pulmonary involvement in GPA. High BAFF levels might reflect severe GPA.

Keywords:
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Microscopic polyangiitis
ANCA-associated vasculitis
B cell activating factor
Interleukin 10
Interleukin 12
Resumen
Antecedentes

Las vasculitis asociadas a anticuerpos anti-citoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCA) son enfermedades sistémicas autoinmunes. La desregulación de las citocinas durante la enfermedad activa y la remisión clínica refleja una actividad inmunológica significativa en diversas etapas de la enfermedad, pudiendo ser presumiblemente responsable de la recidiva potencial de la vasculitis ANCA.

Objetivos

El objetivo de este estudio fue cribar los perfiles serológicos de la granulomatosis con poliangeítis activa (GPA) y la poliangeítis microscópica (PAM), así como determinar sus asociaciones con las características clínicas.

Materiales y métodos

Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, y el factor activador de célula B (BAFF) utilizando quantikine® HS ELISA en 71 pacientes, 47 con GPA y 24 con PAM, comparándose con 16 controles sanos. A continuación, se estudiaron las correlaciones entre los niveles séricos de IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 y BAFF, así como las alteraciones de laboratorio y clínicas.

Resultados

Los niveles de BAFF fueron significativamente más altos en GPA que en PAM y los controles sanos. Los niveles de IL-10 y BAFF fueron elevados en los pacientes de GPA con compromiso pulmonar. Los niveles más altos de BAFF podrían reflejar presumiblemente GPA severa. Los niveles de IL-10 eIL-12 fueron más altos en PAM que en GPA. En PAM, los niveles de IL-10 fueron más altos que en pacientes con corta duración de la enfermedad y en individuos jóvenes. IL-12 guardó una correlación positiva con puntuación de actividad de vasculitis de Birmingham (BVAS), y los niveles fueron elevados en pacientes con compromiso cardiovascular y portadores de S. aureus nasal.

Conclusiones

En PAM, IL-12 guarda una correlación positiva con la actividad de la enfermedad y es particularmente elevada en pacientes con compromiso cardiovascular y portadores de S. aureus nasal. El incremento de IL-10 se observa en pacientes jóvenes de PAM y pacientes con corta duración de la enfermedad. Los niveles elevados de BAFF e IL-10 se asocian a compromiso pulmonar en PAM. Los niveles altos de BAFF pueden reflejar presumiblemente PAM severa.

Palabras clave:
Granulomatosis con poliangeítis
Poliangeítis microscópica
Vasculitis asociada a ANCA
Factor activador de célula B
Interleucina 10
Interleucina 12

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