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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) Personal and vaccination history as factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection
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Vol. 157. Issue 5.
Pages 226-233 (September 2021)
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Vol. 157. Issue 5.
Pages 226-233 (September 2021)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.medcle.2021.02.007
Personal and vaccination history as factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Antecedentes personales y vacunales como factores asociados a la infección por SARS-CoV-2
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María Fernández-Pradaa,
Corresponding author
mariafdezprada@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, Paula García-Gonzálezb, Alejandro García-Moránb, Inés Ruiz-Álvarezb, Covadonga Ramas-Diezb, Carmen Calvo-Rodríguezb
a Servicio de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Hospital Vital Álvarez Buylla, Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias, Asturias, Spain
b Servicio Medicina Interna, Hospital Vital Álvarez Buylla, Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias, Asturias, Spain
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Tables (2)
Table 1. Distribution of the main personal and vaccination history of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Table 2. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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Abstract
Background and objective

SARS-CoV-2 has been and is a major global Public Health challenge. Since the beginning of the pandemic, different comorbidities have been postulated and associated with spectra of increased severity and mortality. The objectives of this research are: 1) to analyse the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) in a health area in northern Spain; 2) to understand the possible role of influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination in the development of COVID-19.

Materials and method

A test-negative case-control study was conducted. Variables related to personal and vaccination history were considered. Although the epidemiological definition of the case varied over time, the reference definition was that corresponding to 31/01/2020 in Spain. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed.

Results

The sample included 188 patients, of which 63 were cases and 125 controls. The results show that obesity increases the risk 2.4-fold of suffering this infection (IC 95% 1,301–4,521) and ARA-2 increases it 2.2-fold (95% CI 1,256–6,982). On the other hand, anti-pneumococcal vaccination of 13 serotypes showed results close to statistical significance (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.170–1,006).

Conclusion

Obesity and the use of ARA-2 increases the risk of COVID-19. Scientific knowledge about factors associated with COVID-19 should be expanded. The authors consider that the present research raises the need further investigate the role of vaccines in this infection and their possible heterologous properties.

Keywords:
SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19
Risk factors
Vaccine
Vaccination
Resumen
Antecedentes y objetivo

El SARS-CoV-2 ha supuesto un importante reto de salud pública. Desde el inicio de la pandemia, se han postulado diferentes comorbilidades que se han asociado con espectros de mayor gravedad y mortalidad. Los objetivos de la presente investigación son: 1) analizar los factores asociados a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) en un área sanitaria del norte de España; 2) conocer el posible papel de la vacunación antigripal y antineumocócica en el desarrollo de la COVID-19.

Materiales y métodos

Se ha realizado un estudio de casos y controles de test negativo. Se tuvieron en cuenta variables relacionadas con los antecedentes personales y vacunales. A pesar de que la definición epidemiológica de caso fue variando a lo largo del tiempo, se tuvo como referencia la correspondiente al 31 de enero del 2020 en España. Se efectuó un análisis bivariante y multivariante.

Resultados

La muestra incluyó a 188 pacientes, de los cuales 63 fueron casos y 125 controles. Los resultados muestran que la obesidad aumenta 2,4 veces el riesgo de padecer esta infección (IC 95% 1.301 a 4.521) y los antagonistas de los receptores de la angiotensina II (ARA-2) lo aumentan 2,2 veces (IC 95% 1.256 a 6.982). Por otro lado, la vacunación antineumocócica conjugada de 13 serotipos mostró resultados cercanos a la significación estadística (OR = 0,4; IC 95% 0,170 a 1.006).

Conclusiones

La obesidad y el uso de fármacos ARA-2 aumentan el riesgo de la COVID-19. El conocimiento científico sobre los factores asociados a la COVID-19 debe seguir ampliándose. La presente investigación plantea la necesidad de profundizar en el papel de las vacunas sobre esta infección y sus posibles propiedades heterólogas.

Palabras clave:
SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19
Factores de riesgo
Vacuna

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