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Inicio Medicina Clínica (English Edition) Molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and their clinical and therapeut...
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Vol. 151. Issue 9.
Pages 362-367 (November 2018)
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Vol. 151. Issue 9.
Pages 362-367 (November 2018)
Molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and their clinical and therapeutical implications
Alteraciones moleculares en leucemia mieloide aguda y sus implicaciones clínicas y terapéuticas
María Stefania Infantea, Miguel Ángel Pirisb,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, José Ángel Hernández-Rivasa
a Servicio de Hematología y Hemoterapia, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
b Servicio de Anatomía Patológica, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain
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Tables (2)
Table 1. Stratification of the risk of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as per cytogenetic and molecular alterations according to the European Leukaemia Net.
Table 2. New agents in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia.
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Acute myeloid leukaemia is the most common form of acute leukaemia, and its incidence increases with age. The disease derives from a transformed multipotent malignant haematopoietic stem cell that acquires consequent genomic alterations. The identification of recurrent cytogenetic anomalies associated with different patterns of acute myeloid leukaemia clinical presentation has led to the incorporation of genetic markers in clinical decision-making. In addition, the observation that these anomalies may mark therapeutic responses and relapse and survival rates have been incorporated into the World Health Organisation's recent molecular classification and stratification and the European Leukaemia Net, with the aim of creating prognostic categories that help rationalize better diagnosis, prognosis, re-evaluation of the disease and the combination of therapeutic protocols in order to increase the survival rate of these patients.

Genetic alterations
Acute leukaemia
Molecular targets
Target therapy

La leucemia mieloide aguda es la forma más frecuente de leucemia aguda, cuya incidencia aumenta con la edad. La enfermedad deriva de una stem cell hematopoyética maligna multipotente transformada que adquiere alteraciones genómicas sucesivas. La identificación de anomalías citogenéticas recurrentes asociadas a distintos patrones de presentación clínica de leucemia mieloide aguda ha llevado a la incorporación de diversos marcadores genéticos que influyen en la toma de decisiones clínicas. Además, las implicaciones que dichas anomalías pueden tener en las respuestas a los tratamientos y en las tasas de recaída y de supervivencia se han incorporado en la reciente clasificación molecular y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y de la European Leukaemia Net, con el objetivo de crear categorías pronósticas que ayuden a racionalizar mejor el diagnóstico, pronóstico, la reevaluación de la enfermedad y la combinación de protocolos terapéuticos, con la finalidad de aumentar la supervivencia.

Palabras clave:
Alteraciones genéticas
Leucemia aguda
Dianas moleculares
Terapia dirigida


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