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Vol. 158. Issue 2.
Pages 76-81 (January 2022)
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Vol. 158. Issue 2.
Pages 76-81 (January 2022)
Review
Irritable bowel syndrome
Síndrome del intestino irritable
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Juan J. Sebastián Domingo
Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Royo Villanova, Zaragoza, Spain
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Table 1. Irritable bowel syndrome subtypes.
Table 2. Diagnostic criteria for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome.
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Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional bowel disorders, and has a substantial impact on patients’ daily lives, as well as a big economic impact on society. It is characterised by abdominal pain, bloating and abdominal distention and altered bowel movements, with a predominance of diarrhoea, constipation, or alternation of these signs, which cannot be explained by a structural or biochemical abnormality. Its aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiological mechanism are unknown. The disease affects 5%–10% of healthy individuals at any given time and, in most people, has a relapsing-remitting course. This article reviews some of the main and most current evidence on its epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic options, both dietary, pharmacological and psychotherapeutic.

Keywords:
Irritable bowel syndrome
Constipation
Diarrhoea
Linaclotide
Rifaximin
Resumen

El síndrome del intestino irritable es uno de los trastornos funcionales intestinales más comunes, y tiene un impacto sustancial en la vida diaria de los pacientes, así como un enorme impacto económico en la sociedad. Se caracteriza por dolor abdominal, meteorismo con distensión abdominal y alteración en las evacuaciones intestinales, con predominio de diarrea, estreñimiento o alternancia de estos signos, los cuales no pueden ser explicados por una anormalidad estructural o bioquímica. Se desconoce su etiopatogenia y su mecanismo fisiopatológico. La enfermedad afecta a entre el 5% y el 10% de los individuos sanos en un momento dado y, en la mayoría de las personas, tiene un curso de recaídas y remisiones. En este artículo se revisan algunas de las evidencias principales y más actuales acerca de su epidemiología, factores de riesgo, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, aproximación diagnóstica y opciones terapéuticas, tanto de tipo dietético como farmacológico y psicoterapéutico.

Palabras clave:
Sindrome del intestino irritable
Estreñimiento
Diarrea
Microbiota
Linaclotida
Rifaximina

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