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Vol. 154. Issue 4.
Pages 119-124 (February 2020)
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Vol. 154. Issue 4.
Pages 119-124 (February 2020)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.medcle.2019.04.034
Alterations of carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy. Effects on the mother and new born infant
Alteraciones del metabolismo glucídico durante el embarazo. Efectos sobre la madre y el recién nacido
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Borja Guerrero Cerveraa, María Morales-Suarez-Varelaa,b,
Corresponding author
maria.m.morales@uv.es

Corresponding author.
, Alfredo Perales Marinc, Isabel Peraita-Costaa,b, Beatriz Marcos Puigc, Agustin Llopis-Moralesa, Agustin Llopis-Gonzaleza,b
a Área de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Ciencias de la Alimentación, Toxicología y Medicina Legal, Universidad deValencia, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
b CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
c Servicio de Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain
Article information
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Figures (1)
Tables (3)
Table 1. Baseline maternal and newborn characteristics.
Table 2. Clinical characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn.
Table 3. Risk of obstetric problems by groups according to the glucidic metabolism disorder versus the normal metabolism group (control group).
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Abstract
Introduction

Gestational diabetes is the pathology that most frequently causes medical alterations in pregnancy. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the presence of alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates during pregnancy and the risk of presenting adverse obstetric outcomes in the mother and the fetus.

Patients and method

An observational study was conducted in 799 women who had just given birth. The clinical and obstetric characteristics of the patients, as well as the data related to pregnancy and delivery, including the state of the newborn were analyzed. The information was evaluated in relation to the alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism.

Results and discussion

For women with gestational diabetes a 2.64 times greater risk of loss of fetal well-being and 3.14 times greater risk of requiring hospitalization during pregnancy were found. For pregnant women with carbohydrate intolerance, a 2.61 times higher risk of requiring episiotomy in vaginal delivery, 7.54 times greater risk of finding fetal well-being loss, and 2.06 times greater risk of requiring hospitalization were found. The group of carbohydrate intolerance behaved similarly to that of diabetes.

Conclusions

The group of intolerance to carbohydrates is a little studied group and significant obstetric alterations have been found compared to the control group and similar to those of the gestational diabetes group.

Keywords:
Diabetes
Gestational diabetes
Carbohydrate intolerance
Pregnancy
Palabrasclave:
Diabetes
Diabetes gestacional
Intolerancia hidratos carbono
Embarazo
Resumen
Introducción

La diabetes gestacional es la patología que con mayor frecuencia origina alteraciones médicas en el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar la relación entre la presencia de alteraciones en el metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono durante el embarazo y el riesgo de presentar resultados obstétricos adversos en la madre y el feto.

Pacientes y método

Se realizó un estudio observacional en 799 mujeres que acababan de dar a luz. Se analizaron las características clínicas y obstétricas de las pacientes, así como los datos relacionados con la gestación y el parto, incluyendo el estado del recién nacido. Se evaluó la información en relación con las alteraciones en el metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono.

Resultados y discusión

Para las mujeres con diabetes gestacional encontramos un riesgo de 2,64 veces mayor de pérdida de bienestar fetal y 3,14 veces mayor de requerir hospitalización durante el embarazo. Para las gestantes con intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono encontramos un riesgo de 2,61 veces mayor de requerir episiotomía en el parto vaginal, 7,54 veces mayor de encontrar pérdida del bienestar fetal y 2,06 veces mayor de requerir hospitalización. El grupo de intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono se comportó de forma similar al de diabetes.

Conclusiones

El grupo de intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono es un grupo poco estudiado y se han encontrado alteraciones obstétricas significativas frente al grupo control y similares a las del grupo de diabetes gestacional.

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