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Vol. 36. Issue 1.
Pages 27-33 (January - February 2021)
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Vol. 36. Issue 1.
Pages 27-33 (January - February 2021)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhqr.2019.12.005
Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for foot pressure ulcers in hospitalized elderly patients. An observational and prospective study
Prevalencia, incidencia y factores de riesgo de las úlceras por presión en el pie en los pacientes mayores hospitalizados. Estudio observacional y prospectivo
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S. Garciaa, J. Alòsa, J. Guallarb, M. Viuc, M. Serra-Pratd,
Corresponding author
mserra@csdm.cat

Corresponding author.
a Vascular Surgery Department, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain
b Geriatric Department, Hospital of Mataró Barcelona, Spain
c Orthopaedics Department, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain
d Research Unit, Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, Barcelona, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Main characteristics of the study sample.
Table 2. Prevalence and incidence of Foot Pressure Ulcers by location and type.
Table 3. Risk factors for foot pressure ulcers in hospitalized elderly subjects.
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Abstract
Background

Incidence and clinical characteristics of foot pressure ulcers (FPU) in hospitalized elderly patients are not well known. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of FPU during hospitalization, to describe main FPU characteristics and to assess main risk factors for FPU in hospitalised elderly subjects.

Methodology

An observational prospective study was performed in which patients 65 years or older admitted to Vascular Surgery, Orthopaedic or Geriatric departments were followed from admission to discharge. Trained nurses evaluated all recruited patients on a daily basis for possible FPU. Main characteristics of the patient (age, sex and co-morbidities) and the ulcer (location, grade) were registered.

Results

299 patients were recruited (62.2% women, mean age 82.3 years, mean number of co-morbidities 2.8). Prevalence of FPU was 30.1% at admission and 73.9% at discharge. Incidence of FPU during hospitalization was 9.5 new FPU/100 person-day. 97.0% of the new FPU were grade 1 (erythema) and the most common locations were in the heel (57.6%), the external lateral part of the foot (13.1%), and the hallux of the fist toe (11.8%). Apart from immobility, main risk factors for FPU are age, geriatric residence origin and not able to outdoor life.

Conclusions

FPU has a high incidence among hospitalised elderly patients; most of them are grade 1 and located in the heel. More attention must be paid in the prevention of pressure ulcers in hospitalized frail subjects.

Keywords:
Pressure ulcers
Prevalence
Incidence
Prevention
Risk factors
Aged
Resumen
Antecedentes

No se conocen bien la incidencia y las características clínicas de las úlceras por presión (UPP) en el pie en los pacientes mayores hospitalizados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia de las UPP durante la hospitalización, describir sus principales características, y evaluar los principales factores de riesgo en los sujetos mayores hospitalizados.

Metodología

Se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo observacional en el que se realizó un seguimiento desde el ingreso al alta de los pacientes mayores de 65 años ingresados en las unidades de cirugía vascular, traumatología o geriatría. Las enfermeras experimentadas evaluaron diariamente a todos los pacientes reclutados en busca de una posible UPP. Se registraron las características principales del paciente (edad, sexo y comorbilidades) y de la úlcera (localización y grado).

Resultados

Se reclutaron 299 pacientes (62,2% mujeres, con una edad media de 82,3 años, y número medio de comorbilidades de 2,8). La prevalencia de UPP fue del 30,1% en el momento del ingreso, y del 73,9% al producirse el alta. La incidencia de UPP durante la hospitalización fue de 9,5 nuevas UPP/100 personas/día. El 97% de las nuevas UPP fueron de grado 1 (eritema), y las localizaciones más comunes fueron el talón (57,6%), la parte lateral externa del pie (13,1%) y el hallux del dedo gordo (11,8%). Aparte de la inmovilidad, los factores principales de riesgo de UPP fueron la edad, la residencia geriátrica como origen y la imposibilidad de realizar actividades en el exterior.

Conclusiones

Las UPP tienen una gran incidencia entre los pacientes mayores hospitalizados, siendo la mayoría de ellas de grado 1 con localización en el talón. Deberá prestarse más atención a la prevención de las UPP en los sujetos frágiles hospitalizados.

Palabras clave:
Úlceras por presión
Prevalencia
Incidencia
Prevención
Factores de riesgo
Mayores

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