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Vol. 13. Issue 3.
Pages 181-188 (September 2013)
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Vol. 13. Issue 3.
Pages 181-188 (September 2013)
DOI: 10.1016/S1697-2600(13)70022-X
Open Access
Social support, self-esteem and depression: Relationship with risk for sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission
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María Teresa Ramiro
Corresponding author
sramiro@ugr.es

Corresponding author at: Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center, CIMCYC, Spain, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, s/n, 18011 Granada, Spain.
, Inmaculada Teva, María Paz Bermúdez, Gualberto Buela-Casal
Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center, CIMCYC, Spain
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Abstract

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are important health problems that affect adolescents. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between 1) depression, self-esteem and perceived social support and 2) sexual risk behaviors according to gender. The sample used in this ex post facto study was composed of 1,005 adolescents of both sexes aged between 14 and 18 years. Participants completed several questionnaires in the classrooms of their secondary education schools. The questionnaires assessed depression, self-esteem and perceived social support and recorded information on sexual behavior and socio-demographic issues. Results showed that, among males, self-esteem predicted higher vaginal risk, depression was related to higher vaginal, anal and oral sexual risk, and perceived support from the family predicted lower vaginal and anal sexual risk. Among females, self-esteem was found to be associated with lower anal sexual risk and perceived support from friends predicted lower anal and oral sexual risk. The study highlights the importance of considering family and friends as well as gender differences in the prevention of STIs/HIV.

Keywords:
Social support
Depression
Self-esteem
Adolescents
Ex post facto study
Resumen

Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y el VIH son importantes problemas de salud que afectan a los adolescentes. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones entre depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido y el riesgo en las relaciones sexuales en función del sexo. En este estudio ex post facto participaron 1.005 adolescentes de ambos sexos, de edades comprendidas los 14 y 18 años. Los adolescentes cumplimentaron en las aulas de los centros de enseñanza secundaria un conjunto de cuestionarios que evaluaban depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido, conducta sexual y aspectos sociodemográficos. Los resultados mostraron que en los varones, la autoestima predecía un mayor riesgo vaginal, la depresión se relacionaba con un mayor riesgo sexual vaginal, anal y oral y el apoyo percibido de la familia predecía un menor riesgo vaginal y anal. En mujeres, se halló que la autoestima se asociaba con un menor riesgo en el sexo anal y el apoyo percibido de los amigos predecía un menor riesgo sexual anal y oral. Se destaca la importancia de la familia y los amigos en la prevención de las ITS/VIH así como la consideración de las diferencias sexuales.

Palabras clave:
Apoyo social
Depresión
Autoestima
Adolescentes
Estudio ex post facto
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Copyright © 2013. Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual
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