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Vol. 15. Issue 1.
Pages 33-43 (March 2011)
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Vol. 15. Issue 1.
Pages 33-43 (March 2011)
DOI: 10.1016/S0123-9392(11)70074-1
Open Access
Virus del dengue: estructura y ciclo viral
Dengue virus: structure and viral cycle
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Myriam L. Velandia1, Jaime E. Castellanos1,2,
Corresponding author
jecastellanosp@unal.edu.co

Correspondencia: Carrera 30 N° 45-03, Facultad de Odontología, Edificio 210, Oficina 210, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. Tel.:éfono: (571) 316-5555; fax: (571) 648-9066.
1 Grupo de Virología, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
2 Grupo de Patogénesis Viral, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
Article information
Resumen

El virus del dengue (DENV) es el agente causal de la enfermedad conocida como dengue, que es la principal enfermedad viral transmitida por artrópodos en el mundo. El DENV es un flavivirus que ingresa por endocitosis y se replica en el citoplasma de la célula infectada, originando tres proteínas estructurales y siete proteínas no estructurales, sobre las cuales se conocen sólo algunas de sus funciones en la replicación viral o en la infección. El ciclo viral que ocurre en las células infectadas hasta ahora está comenzando a aclararse y su conocimiento permitirá en el futuro próximo diseñar racionalmente moléculas que lo intervengan y eviten la replicación del virus. Durante la infección, el individuo puede presentar fiebre indiferenciada o, en otros casos, puede presentar un proceso generalizado de activación de la respuesta inmunitaria innata y adquirida, lo cual provoca la liberación de factores inflamatorios solubles que alteran la fisiología de los tejidos, principalmente el endotelio, conllevando al desarrollo de manifestaciones clínicas graves. Aunque se ha identificado un gran número de factores del individuo asociados al desarrollo de la enfermedad por DENV, queda por identificar el papel de las diferentes proteínas virales en la patogenia de la enfermedad. En la presente revisión, se presenta una breve actualización sobre la estructura y biología del DENV, de su ciclo viral intracelular y, finalmente, se introducen algunos conceptos sobre la inmunopatogenia de la enfermedad producida por este agente.

Palabras clave:
virus del dengue
estructura
ensamblaje
inmunopatogenia
Abstract

Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for the clinical entity known as dengue that is a great concern for economy and public health of tropical countries. This flavivirus is a single strand RNA virus that after their translation and replication in host cells produces three structural and seven non-structural proteins with specific function in replication or cell binding process that we will describe here. Intracellular viral cycle has begun to be described and this knowledge will impact the rational design of new antiviral drugs. Patients suffering dengue can have an undifferentiated fever or in the severe cases, show an aberrant immunological activation process that lead to soluble inflammatory mediators secretion, affecting tissue function, mainly endothelium. This organ dysfunction is associated with plasma leakage and coagulatory imbalance. Despite it has been recently described some host factors associated with severity of infection, it remains unknown some aspects of viral biology or the role of DENV proteins in disease pathogenesis. This article pretends to make an updated revision about DENV structure, cell viral cycle and introduce some concepts about dengue immunopathogenesis.

Key words:
Dengue Virus
structure
assembly
immunopathogenesis
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