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European Journal of Psychiatry
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Vol. 34. Issue 4.
Pages 202-210 (October - December 2020)
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Vol. 34. Issue 4.
Pages 202-210 (October - December 2020)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpsy.2020.06.004
Cognitive predictors of depression and anxiety in individuals with newly diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis
Merve Coşkun Günera, Menekşe Sıla Yazarb,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, Kumru Şenyaşar Meterelliyozb
a Şanlıurfa Mehmet Akif İnan Research and Training Hospital, Esentepe Mah. Merkez Ertuğrul St. 63300, Haliliye, Şanlıurfa, Turkey
b Bakırkoy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Research and Training Hospital for Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Psychiatry Clinic, Zuhuratbaba Dr TevfikSağlam St. No:25/2, Bakırköy, Istanbul, Turkey
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the groups.
Table 2. Comparison of depression, anxiety, dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts scores of MS patients group and healthy controls.
Table 3. Comparison of the depression, anxiety, dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts scores of the depressed and non-depressed MS patients groups.
Table 4. Correlation matrix of the depression, anxiety, dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts in MS patients group.
Table 5. The results of the logistic regression analysis.
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Background and objectives

Determinants of psychosocial adjustment in newly diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients include not only disease-related factors but also cognitive-behavioral factors. This study aimed to investigate the level of depression and anxiety symptoms and to examine the role of cognitive distortions in the development of depression and anxiety in newly diagnosed MS patients.


63 MS patients and 58 healthy controls 18–65 years of age were included. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) were administered to the sample.


MS patients had significantly higher HAM-D and HAM-A scores (p<0.05). HAM-D and HAM-A scale scores were correlated with each other in the MS patients group (p<0.05). ATQ scores were significantly higher in the MS group than healthy controls (p<0.01). HAM-D and HAM-A scores were also both correlated with ATQ and DAS scores in MS patients group (p<0.05). There is a statistically significant difference for marital status and ATQ scores between the MS patients group with significant depressive symptoms (according to HAM-D cut off point above 17) and those without significant depressive symptoms (p<0.05). ATQ is the only independent variable that predicts the depression levels (OR=1.12 CI=1.068–1.176; p<0.001) in stepwise regression analysis. The overall disclosure percentage of the model to 52%.


Automatic thoughts are a vulnerability factor for the development of depressive symptoms in newly diagnosed MS patients. Psychological stress affects not only MS patients with advanced-stage but also newly diagnosed MS patients.

Multiple Sclerosis
Maladaptive cognitions


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